Largest National Park in India

Definition of National Park

20 Best National Parks In India | Wildlife Sanctuaries India - TravelTriangle - YouTube

 

  • A national park is a natural park founded and protected by national governments for conservation objectives. A sovereign state often proclaims or owns a reserve of natural, semi-natural, or developed territory. Although national parks are designated differently by each country, there is a common theme: the preservation of “raw nature” for posterity and as a source of national pride.
  • While this form of national park has been proposed before, Yellowstone National Park was founded in 1872 as the first “public park or pleasuring-ground for the profit and enjoyment of the people.” Although Yellowstone was not legally designated as a “national park” in its founding legislation, it was always referred to as such in practice and is largely regarded as the world’s first and oldest national park. The Tobago Main Ridge Forest Reserve (formed in 1776) and the region surrounding Bogd Khan Uul Mountain (1778) are considered the first legally protected areas, over a century before Yellowstone.
  • The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and its World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) have classified “National Park” as a type of protected area in the Category II category. In 2006, the IUCN reported that 6,555 national parks around the world matched its criteria. The parameters for creating a national park are still being debated by the IUCN.

Importance of National Park

  • To maintain the area in order to preserve typical examples of physiographic regions, biotic ecosystems, genetic resources, and unaffected natural processes in as natural a state as possible;
  • Maintaining healthy and ecologically effective populations and assemblages of native species at densities sufficient to preserve ecosystem integrity and resilience across time;
  • Contribute to the protection of wide-ranging species, regional ecological processes, and migration patterns, in particular;
  • To control visitor use for inspiring, educational, cultural, and recreational purposes at a level that does not degrade natural resources biologically or ecologically;
  • To consider the needs of indigenous peoples and local populations, including subsistence resource usage, to the extent that this does not jeopardize the primary management goal;
  • Contribute to the local economy by way of tourism.

Features of National Park

  • The area should include exemplary examples of key natural regions, as well as biological and environmental elements or scenery, where native plant and animal species, ecosystems, and geodiversity sites are spiritually, scientifically, educationally, recreationally, or touristically important.
  • The region should be large enough and of good enough ecological quality to retain ecological functions and processes that will allow native species and communities to thrive in the long run with minimum management.
  • The composition, structure, and function of biodiversity should be in a “natural” condition to a large extent, or have the ability to be restored to such a state, with a low danger of non-native species successfully invading.
  • India’s wildlife is diverse, and its national parks and biosphere reserves are home to a variety of endangered wildlife species, including Royal Bengal Tigers and Red Pandas, the vulnerable one-horned Rhinoceros and Snow Leopards, and the critically endangered Great Indian Bustard, among many others.
  • There are 104 national parks, 551 wildlife sanctuaries, 131 marine protected areas, 18 biosphere reserves, 88 conservation reserves, and 127 community reserves in India, which span a total area of 1,65,088.57 square kilometers. There are 870 Protected Areas in total, accounting up 5.06 percent of the country’s land area.
  • Corbett National Park is India’s first and oldest national park. This national park, located in Uttarakhand’s Himalayan foothills, was established in 1936.
  • It covers an area of 520.82 square kilometers and is home to a diverse range of flora and fauna, including Royal Bengal Tigers.
  • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India’s first biosphere reserve, was created in 1986. In Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, this reserve encompasses the protected regions of Wayanad, Nagarhole, Bandipur, and Mudumalai, Nilambur, and Silent Valley.
  • The Great Rann of Kutch is India’s largest biosphere reserve, covering 12454 square kilometers. Hemis National Park in Ladakh, on the other hand, is India’s largest national park, covering 4400 square kilometers.

Flora and Fauna 

Flora And Fauna In Bihar

  • According to a study, India is one of the 17 megadiverse countries, accounting for 60-70 percent of global biodiversity. Around 400 species of mammals and 1300+ species of birds live in India’s national parks and wildlife sanctuaries.
  • The Indian Sloth Bear, the Chausinga (four-horned antelope), and the Barasinga are among the uncommon and distinctive wildlife species found in these wildlife reserves (swamp deer). In fact, India is the only country in the world with both tigers and lions. It also has the world’s largest deer and tiger populations.
  • The Indian wildlife reserves are home to a diverse flora as well as a diverse fauna. Flowering plants are believed to number over 15000 species, accounting for around 6-7 percent of all plant species on the planet. There are 600 varieties of flowering plants in Uttarakhand’s Valley of Flowers National Park alone, including the famous and unique Brahma Kamal.

List of National Parks in India - General Awareness Study Material & Notes

List of National Parks in India:

State/Union Territory Total  Parks National Parks Name Establishment Year
Andaman & Nicobar Islands 9 Campbell Bay National Park 1992
Galathea Bay National Park 1992
Mahatama Gandhi Marine (Wandoor) National Park 1982
Middle Button Island National Park 1987
Mount Harriett National Park 1987
North Button Island National Park 1987
Rani Jhansi Marine National Park 1996
Saddle Peak National Park 1987
South Button Island National Park 1987
Andhra Pradesh 3 Papikonda National Park 2008
Rajiv Gandhi (Rameswaram) National Park 2005
Sri Venkateswara National Park 1989
Arunachal Pradesh 2 Mouling National Park 1986
Namdapha National Park 1983
Assam 5 Dibru-Saikhowa National Park 1999
Kaziranga National Park 1974
Manas National Park 1990
Nameri National Park 1998
Rajiv Gandhi Orang National Park 1999
Bihar 1 Valmiki National Park 1989
Chhattisgarh 3 Guru Ghasidas (Sanjay) National Park 1981
Indravati (Kutru) National Park 1982
Kanger Valley National Park 1982
Goa 1 Mollem National Park 1992
Gujarat 4 Vansda National Park 1979
Blackbuck (Velavadar) National Park 1976
Gir National Park 1975
Marine (Gulf of Kachchh) National Park 1982
Haryana 2 Kalesar National Park 2003
SultaNational Parkur National Park 1989
Himachal Pradesh 5 Great Himalayan National Park 1984
Inderkilla National Park 2010
Khirganga National Park 2010
Pin Valley National Park 1987
Simbalbara National Park 2010
Jammu and Kashmir 3 City Forest (Salim Ali) National Park 1992
Dachigam National Park 1981
Kishtwar National Park 1981
Jharkhand 1 Betla National Park 1986
Karnataka 5 Anshi National Park 1987
Bandipur National Park 1974
Bannerghatta National Park 1974
Kudremukh National Park 1987
Nagarahole (Rajiv Gandhi) National Park 1988
Kerala 6 Anamudi Shola National Park 2003
Eravikulam National Park 1978
Mathikettan Shola National Park 2003
Pambadum Shola National Park 2003
Periyar National Park 1982
Silent Valley National Park 1984
Madhya Pradesh 9 Bandhavgarh National Park 1968
Fossil National Park 1983
Indira Priyadarshini Pench National Park 1975
Kanha National Park 1955
Madhav National Park 1959
Panna National Park 1981
Sanjay National Park 1981
Satpura National Park 1981
Van Vihar National Park 1979
Maharashtra 6 Chandoli National Park 2004
Gugamal National Park 1975
Nawegaon National Park 1975
Pench (Jawaharlal Nehru) National Park 1975
Sanjay Gandhi (Borivali) National Park 1983
Tadoba National Park 1955
Manipur 1 Keibul-Lamjao National Park 1977
Meghalaya 2 Balphakram National Park 1985
Nokrek Ridge National Park 1986
Mizoram 2 Murlen National Park 1991
Phawngpui Blue Mountain National Park 1992
Nagaland 1 Intanki National Park 1993
Odisha 2 Bhitarkanika National Park 1988
Simlipal National Park 1980
Rajasthan 5 Mukundra Hills National Park 2006
Desert National Park 1992
Keoladeo Ghana National Park 1981
Ranthambhore National Park 1980
Sariska National Park 1992
Sikkim 1 Khangchendzonga National Park 1977
Tamil Nadu 5 Guindy National Park 1976
Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park 1980
Indira Gandhi (Annamalai) National Park 1989
Mudumalai National Park 1990
Mukurthi National Park 1990
Ladakh 1 Hemis National Park 1981
Telangana 3 Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park 1994
Mahaveer Harina Vanasthali National Park 1994
Mrugavani National Park 1994
Tripura 2 Clouded Leopard National Park 2007
Bison (Rajbari) National Park 2007
Uttar Pradesh 1 Dudhwa National Park 1977
Uttarakhand 6 Corbett National Park 1936
Gangotri National Park 1989
Govind National Park 1990
Nanda Devi National Park 1982
Rajaji National Park 1983
Valley of Flowers National Park 1982
West Bengal 6 Buxa National Park 1992
Gorumara National Park 1992
Jaldapara National Park 2014
Neora Valley National Park 1986
Singalila National Park 1986
Sunderban National Park 1984

Important Role Play in the landscape/seascape

provides large-scale conservation options, allowing natural biological processes to continue indefinitely and allowing space for evolution to proceed. They are frequently important stepping stones in the design and development of large-scale biological corridors or other connectivity conservation programs needed for those species (wide-ranging and/or migratory) that cannot be fully conserved within a single protected area. As a result, their primary responsibilities are as follows:

Protecting larger-scale biological processes that smaller protected regions or cultural landscapes will miss;

preserving environmental services that are compatible;

Protecting specific species and populations that require huge swaths of undisturbed environment;

establishing a “pool” of such species to assist in the population of sustainably managed lands surrounding the protected area;

To contribute to large-scale conservation initiatives by integrating with adjacent land or water users;

To educate and enthuse tourists about the importance of conservation programs and their potential;

To promote sustainable economic development, mostly through recreation and tourism, that benefits local, state, and national economies, as well as local communities.

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