When was the Treaty of Amritsar Signed and Between Whom

Ranjit Singh and the British

Maharaja Ranjit Singh | Exotic India Art

 

  • The English were concerned about the possibility of a joint Franco-Russian invasion of India via the land route. Lord Minto dispatched Charles Metcalfe to Lahore in 1807.

 

 

  • Ranjit Singh agreed to accept Metcalfe’s offensive and defensive alliance proposal on the condition that the English would remain neutral in the event of a Sikh-Afghan war and regard Ranjit Singh as the sovereign of the entire Punjab, including the Malwa (cis-Sutlej) territories.
  • However, the talks fell through. Ranjit Singh consented to sign the Treaty of Amritsar (April 25, 1809) with the Company when the political situation shifted, with the Napoleonic threat receding and the English asserting themselves.

Amritsar Treaty is a treaty signed in Amritsar, India.

 

The Treaty of Amritsar was significant both in terms of its immediate and possible consequences. By adopting the river Sutlej as the boundary line between his dominions and the Company’s, it thwarted one of Ranjit Singh’s most treasured dreams to expand his reign over the entire Sikh people. Now he focused his efforts on the west, capturing Multan (1818), Kashmir (1819), and Peshawar (1820). (1834).

History' Selects Maharaja Ranjit Singh as Top 5 'Greatest Leader in World  History' | SikhNet

Ranjit Singh was forced to sign the Tripartite Treaty with the English by political forces in June 1838; however, he refused to allow the British army to pass through his territory to attack Dost Mohammad, the Afghan Amir. Raja Ranjit Singh’s interactions with the Company from 1809 to 1839 reveal the latter’s vulnerability. Despite being aware of his weak position, he took no steps to form a coalition with other Indian rulers or preserve a power balance. Ranjit Singh died in June 1839, and the downfall of his empire began with his death.

After Ranjit Singh

Kharak Singh, Ranjit Singh’s only legitimate son and heir, was ineffective, and court divisions emerged during his brief rule. The abrupt death of Kharak Singh in 1839, as well as the unintentional murder of his son, Prince Nav Nihal Singh (when returning from his father’s funeral), resulted in anarchy throughout Punjab. Plans and counter-plans by various organizations to seize Lahore’s monarchy presented an opportunity for the English to take decisive action.

The army, which was supposed to be the backbone of the Sikh state, was far weaker than it appeared. Mohkam Chand, Dewan Chand, Hari Singh Nalwa, and Ram Dayal, Ranjit Singh’s capable generals, were already dead. Discontent among the troops was already increasing as a result of payment irregularities. Indiscipline resulted from the hiring of unfit officers.

The government of Lahore, following its policy of friendliness with the English firm, allowed British forces to cross through its territory twice: first on their way out of Afghanistan and again on their way back to avenge their defeat. In Punjab, the marches caused a ruckus and economic disruption.

Daleep Singh and Rani Jindal

Sher Singh, another son of Ranjit Singh, succeeded after Nav Nihal Singh’s death, but he was assassinated in late 1843. Daleep Singh, Ranjit Singh’s minor son, was proclaimed Maharaja soon after, with Rani Jindan as regent and Hira Singh Dogra as wazir. Hira Singh was assassinated in 1844 as a result of a court intrigue. The troops quickly despised the new wazir, Jawahar Singh, Rani Jindan’s brother, and he was ousted and put to death in 1845. In the same year, Lal Singh, a lover of Rani Jindan, won over the troops and was made wazir, and Teja Singh was appointed commander of the forces.

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