Anglo-Mysore War

Importance of Anglo Mysore War

First Anglo-Mysore War - Wikiwand

  • Haider Ali began his career as a soldier in the state of Mysore, where he rose through the ranks to become the Faujdar of Dindigul. He was able to create a modern armory in Dindigul with the support of the French. In 1761, Haider Ali deposed the Nanjaraja, the Wodeyar kingdom’s prime minister under King Krishnaraja I. He continued to recognize the king as the legitimate ruler.
  • The four wars that the English fought with Mysore in order to conquer Mysore.
  • The Anglo-Mysore Wars were a series of four military clashes between the British and the rulers of Mysore in India.

The First Anglo-Mysore War (1767-69)

First Anglo-Mysore War - Wikipedia

  • In 1612, the Wodeyars established a Hindu state in the Mysore region. From 1734 to 1766, Chikka Krishnaraja Wodeyar II governed.
    With his tremendous administrative skills and military tactics, Haider Ali, a soldier in the army of the Wodeyars, became the de-facto king of Mysore.
  • Under his guidance, Mysore became into a strong force in the second part of the 18th century.
  • The English political and commercial interests, as well as their influence over Madras, were jeopardized by Mysore’s proximity to the French and Haidar Ali’s dominance over the lucrative Malabar coast trade.
  • After defeating the nawab of Bengal in the Battle of Buxar, the British persuaded the Nizam of Hyderabad to sign a treaty giving them the Northern Circars in exchange for safeguarding the Nizam against Haidar Ali, who was already embroiled in a feud with the Marathas.
  • Against Haidar Ali, the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Marathas, and the English banded together.
    Haider used diplomacy to keep the Marathas neutral and transform Nizam into an ally in the fight against the Nawab of Arcot.
    Ali Haider
  • Haider Ali (1721-1782), a horseman in the Mysore army under the ministers of king Chikka Krishnaraja Wodeyar, began his career as a horseman in the Mysore army.
  • He was illiterate, yet he was intelligent, diplomatically and militarily capable.
  • With the support of the French army, he became the de facto king of Mysore in 1761 and incorporated western methods of training into his army.
  • In 1761-63, he took over the Nizami army and the Marathas and captured Dod Ballapur, Sera, Bednur, and Hoskote, as well as bringing the troublesome Poligars of South India to surrender (Tamil Nadu).
  • From the time of the Vijayanagara Empire in areas of Southern India, Poligars or Palaiyakkarars were appointed as military chiefs and administrative administrators. They also took money from the cultivators in the form of taxes.
  • After recovering from their defeat, the Marathas led by Madhavrao attacked Mysore in 1764, 1766, and 1771, and defeated Haidar Ali.
  • Haidar Ali had to pay them significant sums of money to buy peace, but after Madhavrao’s death in 1772, Haidar Ali raided the Marathas several times between 1774 and 1776, recovering all of the lands he had previously lost as well as capturing new territory.
    The War’s Progress
  • The battle dragged on for another year and a half with no end in sight.
  • Haidar shifted his strategy and arrived before the Madras gates, causing full confusion and panic in the city.
  • As a result, the English were forced to sign the Treaty of Madras with Haidar on April 4, 1769.
  • The pact stipulated the exchange of captives and captured territories.
  • In the event that Haidar Ali was attacked by another power, the English agreed to assist him.

The Second Anglo-Mysore War (1780-84)

  • When the Maratha army attacked Mysore in 1771, the British failed to follow the treaty of Madras.
  • Haider Ali accused them of betraying their trust.
  • Furthermore, Haider Ali found the French to be more resourceful in meeting the army’s needs for firearms, saltpetre, and lead.
  • As a result, he began bringing French war supplies to Mysore via Mahe, a French territory on the Malabar Coast.
  • The British were concerned about the growing friendship between the two.
  • As a result, the British attempted to seize Mahe, which was protected by Haider Ali.
    The War’s Progress
  • Against the British, Haidar Ali formed an alliance with the Marathas and the Nizam.
  • In 1781, he assaulted the Carnatic, conquered Arcot, and defeated Colonel Baillie’s English troops.
  • Meanwhile, the English (under Sir Eyre Coote) remove both the Marathas and the Nizam from Haidar’s side, but the unfazed Haidar attacked the English head-on, only to be defeated in November 1781 at Porto Novo (now Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu).
  • He reassembled his soldiers, however, and defeated and captured the English commander, Braithwaite.
  • On December 7, 1782, Haidar Ali died of cancer.
  • His son Tipu Sultan continued the fight for a year without achieving any success.
  • Both sides sought peace after an inconclusive war, concluding the Treaty of Mangalore (March, 1784) in which both parties returned the areas they had acquired from each other.
  • Tipu Sultan was Haidar Ali’s son and a legendary warrior known as the Tiger of Mysore. He was born in November 1750.
  • He was a well-educated individual who spoke Arabic, Persian, Kanarese, and Urdu fluently.
  • Tipu, like his father Haider Ali, placed great emphasis on the development and upkeep of a capable military force.
  • With Persian words of command, he organized his army on the European model.
  • Despite the fact that he enlisted the assistance of French officers to teach his troops, he never permitted them (the French) to become a pressure group.
  • Tipu understood the significance of a naval force.
  • He established a Board of Admiralty in 1796 and envisioned a fleet of 22 battleships and 20 big frigates.
  • At Mangalore, Wajedabad, and Molidabad, he developed three dockyards. His ideas, however, did not come to fruition.
  • He was also a supporter of science and technology, and he is acknowledged with being India’s “pioneer of rocket technology.”
  • He wrote a military guidebook that explains how rockets work.
  • He was also a forerunner in bringing sericulture to the state of Mysore.
  • Tipu was a staunch supporter of democracy and a skilled diplomat who helped the French soldiers at Seringapatam establish a Jacobin Club in 1797.
  • Tipu joined the Jacobin Club and accepted the moniker Citizen Tipu.
  • At Seringapatam, he planted the Tree of Liberty.

The Third Anglo-Mysore War was fought (1790-92)

  • The Treaty of Mangalore proved insufficient to address Tipu Sultan’s issues with the British.
  • Both were attempting to achieve political dominance in the Deccan.
  • The Third Anglo-Mysore War began when Tipu Sultan attacked Travancore, an English ally and the East India Company’s only supplier of pepper.
  • Tipu viewed Travancore’s purchase of Jalkottal and Cannanore from the Dutch in the Cochin state, which was a feudatory of his, to be an infringement of his sovereign powers.
    The War’s Progress
  • The British attacked Mysore in support of Travancore.
  • Envious of Tipu’s burgeoning authority, the Nizam and the Marathas joined the British.
  • Tipu Sultan defeated General Meadows’ British troops in 1790.
  • Lord Cornwallis assumed command in 1791 and led a huge force through Ambur and Vellore to Bangalore (which he seized in March 1791), and then to Seringapatam.
  • Coimbatore fell to them, but they lost it again, and the British finally assaulted Seringapatam for the second time, this time with the help of the Marathas and the Nizam.
  • Tipu put up a strong fight, but the odds were stacked against him.
  • The Treaty of Seringapatam, signed in 1792, brought the war to an end.
  • The combination of the British, Nizam, and Marathas took over nearly half of Mysorean territory under this treaty.
  • The British were given Baramahal, Dindigul, and Malabar, while the Marathas were given the areas surrounding the Tungabhadra and its tributaries, and the Nizam was given the areas from Krishna to beyond the Pennar.
  • Tipu was also charged with a war damage of three crore rupees.
  • The English took Tipu’s two sons as hostages in exchange for half of the war indemnity being paid immediately and the remainder being paid in installments.
  • The Third Anglo-Mysore War obliterated Tipu’s hegemony in the south, effectively establishing British dominance.
    Background to the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799)
  • Both the British and Tipu Sultan used the years 1792-1799 to make up for their losses.
  • Tipu had his sons liberated after fulfilling all of the requirements of the Seringapatam Treaty.
  • When the Wodeyar dynasty’s Hindu king died in 1796, Tipu declared himself Sultan and resolved to avenge his humiliating defeat in the previous war.
  • Lord Wellesley, a staunch imperialist, succeeded Sir John Shore as Governor General in 1798.
  • Wellesley was concerned about Tipu’s burgeoning ties with the French.
  • He used the Subsidiary Alliance structure to push Tipu into submission, with the goal of eradicating Tipu’s autonomous existence.
  • Tipu was accused of sending treasonous messengers to Arabia, Afghanistan, the Isle of France (Mauritius), and Versailles to conspire against the British. Wellesley was not satisfied with Tipu’s explanation, and the fourth Anglo-Mysore war began.

Lord Wellesley and Subsidiary Alliance

  • Lord Wellesley established the Subsidiary Alliance system in India in 1798, under which the ruler of an allying Indian state was forced to pay a subsidy for the maintenance of the British troops in exchange for British protection against their opponents.
  • It stipulated the establishment of a British Resident at the ruler’s court, as well as the ruler’s prohibition on employing any European in his service without British sanction.
  • Instead of paying an annual stipend, the ruler would sometimes cede a portion of his realm.
  • The Nizam of Hyderabad was the first Indian king to sign the Subsidiary Alliance.
  • Those native princes or monarchs who joined the Subsidiary Alliance were not allowed to wage war on any other state or negotiate without the British’s permission.
  • The princes who were relatively strong and powerful were allowed to keep their forces, but they were commanded by British generals.
  • The Subsidiary Alliance was a policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of allies, however the British rarely followed through on this commitment.
  • Payment of the arbitrary-determined and artificially-inflated subsidy inevitably wrecked the state’s economy and impoverished its citizens.
  • The British, on the other hand, could now afford to keep a huge army at the expense of the Indian states.
  • They had a large force stationed in the heart of the protected ally’s country, and they controlled his defense and foreign affairs.
    The War’s Progress
  • The war began on April 17, 1799, and ended with the fall of Seringapatam on May 4, 1799. Tipu was beaten by two British generals: General Stuart and General Harris.
  • Lord Wellesley’s brother, Arthur Wellesley, also fought in the war.
  • The British were once again backed by the Marathas and the Nizam, who had been promised half of Tipu’s land and had already joined the Subsidiary Alliance.
  • The British confiscated all of Tipu Sultan’s treasures after he perished in the war.
  • The British appointed a child from Mysore’s previous Hindu royal family as maharaja, as well as imposing the subsidiary alliance system on him.
  • Mysore had taken the English 32 years to conquer. The threat of a French renaissance in the Deccan was extinguished once and for all.
    Post-War Situation
  • Lord Wellesley gave the Marathas the regions of Soonda and Harponelly in Mysore Kingdom, but they declined.
    The districts of Gooty and Gurramkonda were granted to the Nizam.
  • Kanara, Wayanad, Coimbatore, Dwaraporam, and Seringapatam were all taken over by the British.
  • The previous Hindu dynasty (Wodeyars) was given control of the new kingdom of Mysore, which was handed over to a minor prince, Krishnaraja III, who accepted the subsidiary alliance.

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