Total 52 Tiger Reserves in India UPSC

Tiger Reserves:-
The number of tigers in India has increased 1706 in 2010 and 2226 in 2014 as compared to 1411 in the year 2006. The largest tiger reserve in India is ‘Nagarjuna Sagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve’ (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) with a total area of 3296.31 km square, while the smallest is ‘Bor Tiger Reserve’ in Maharashtra with a total area of 138.12 km square.
                                                          
The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, cultural, aesthetic and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education, training and enjoyment of the people. 
Project Tiger:-
  • According to the survey conducted by Animal Planet, tiger is world’s favourite animal. It is estimated that India had about 40,000 tigers in 1900 and the number has declined to a mere about 1,800 in 1972.
  • The government of India has taken a pioneer initiative for conserving the tiger by launching the Project Tiger in 1973 . IUCN has specified tiger as an endangered species.
  • India established Jim Corbett National Park as the first Tiger Reserve on 1st April,1973.
  • From 9 tiger reserves since its  increased to 50 at present, spreading in 18 tiger range states in India.
  • This amounts to around 2.21% of the geographical area of the country.
  • It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme  of Ministry of Environment, Forest and climate Change, providing assistance to the tiger states for its conservation in the designated tiger reserves.
  • The tiger reserves are constituted on a core/buffer strategy. The core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary, whereas the buffer areas are a mix of forest and non-forested land.
                                                      
  • Project Tiger aims to foster an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of tiger reserves, with an inclusive people oriented agenda in the buffer area.
  • The government had celebrated the year 2010 as The Tiger Year. To attract the international attention towards tiger reserves, with an inclusive people oriented agenda in the buffer area.
 
Species of Tiger:-
 

There were 9 species of Tiger in the world but now 3 of them are extinct (Caspian, Javan and Bali Tiger).

  •  Royal Bengal Tiger: These are found mainly in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.
  •  Indo-Chinese Tiger: These are found mainly in Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
  • Malayan Tiger: These are found mainly in the southern region of Malayan Peninsula.
  • Sumatra Tiger: These are found only in the Sumatra island of Indonesia.
  • Siberian Tiger: It is also known as Amur Tiger. These are found in different parts of Siberia.
  • SouthChina Tiger: These are known as Amoy Tiger or Xiamen Tiger.
                                               
Tx2 Programmes :-                      
 
  • It was launched by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in 2010 at St Petersburg Tiger Summit held in Russia.
  • Under it, Nepal and 12 other range countries had agreed to double the world tiger population by 2022.
 
National Tiger Conservation Authority:-
 
  • It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change constituted under the enabling provision of the Wildlife ( Protection ) Act, 1972 as amended in 2006. Its aim is to decide standards for tiger reserve, planning for tiger protection and to present annual report in the parliament.

 

  • The authority is envisaged with the power to grant permission for tiger protection schemes of the states and to prepare standards and direction for the protection of tigers in the tiger dominated areas.
  • In order to prevent illegal poaching, a multipurpose tiger and endangered species Crime Control Bureau was constituted on 6th June 2007.
  • No state government shall de-notify a tiger reserve except in public interest with the prior approval of the National Tiger Conservation Authority and National Board for Wildlife.
 
 
Tiger Census:-
  • According to Tiger Census 2018 (fourth Tiger Census) released on Global Tiger Day (29th July, 2019) the total count of Tigers has risen to 2,967 from 2,226 in 2014 (an increase of 33% in 4 years).
  • Tiger Census Report is a four yearly report carried out by Wildlife Institute of India and National Tiger Conservation Authority.
  • Worst performers – Chattisgarh and Mizoram.
  • Chattisgarh is the only state out of 20 tiger bearing states which has 19 tigers (2014 – 46 tigers).
  • No tiger has been found in Buxa (West Bengal) Palamau (Jharkhand) and Dampa (Mizoram) reserves.
  • Pench Tiger Reserves ( Madhya Pradesh) recorded) the highest number of tigers.
Highest Number of Tigers
State Tiger count
Madhya Pradesh 526
Karnataka 524
Uttrakhand 442
Maharashtra 312
Tamil Nadu 264

 

Census Data of All the 4 Tiger Census
Year Tiger count
2006 1411
2010 1706
2014 2226
2018 2967

 

Regional distribution of Tigers
Tiger Landscapes Tiger count
Central India and Eastern Ghats 1033
Western Ghats 981
Shivaliks Hills and Gangetic plains 646
North East Hills and Brahmaputra 88
Sundarbans 88
52 Tiger Reserves in India:-
State Name of Tiger Reserve Total area(In Sq. Kms.)
1 Uttarakhand Rajaji 1075.17
2 Uttarakhand Corbett 1288.31
3 Uttar Pradesh Pilibhit 730.24
4 Uttar Pradesh Dudhwa 2201.77
5 Bihar Valmiki 899.38
6 Andhra Pradesh Nagarjunsagar Srisailam 3296.31
7 Chhattisgarh Achankamar 914.01
8 Chhattisgarh Indravati 2799.07
9 Chhattisgarh Udanti Sitanadi 1842.54
10 Jharkhand Palamau 1129.93
11 Madhya Pradesh Bandhavgarh 1598.1
12 Madhya Pradesh Kanha 2051.79
13 Madhya Pradesh Panna 1578.55
14 Madhya Pradesh Pench 1179.63
15 Madhya Pradesh Satpura 2133.30
16 Madhya Pradesh Sanjay Dubri 1674.50
17 Maharashtra Bor 138.12
18 Maharashtra Melghat 2768.52
19 Maharashtra Nawegaon-Nagzira 653.67
20 Maharashtra Pench 741.22
21 Maharashtra Sahyadri 1165.57
22 Maharashtra Tadoba-Andhari 1727.59
23 Odisha Satkosia 963.87
24 Odisha Similipal 2750
25 Rajasthan Mukandra Hills 759.99
26 Rajasthan Ranthambore 1411.29
27 Rajasthan Sariska 1213.34
28 Rajasthan Ramgarh Vishdhari 1052.12
29 Telangana Amrabad 2611.39
30 Telangana Kawal 2019.12
31 Karnataka Bandipur 1456.3


32 Karnataka Bhadra 1064.29
33 Karnataka Biligiri Ranganatha Temple 574.82
34 Karnataka Dandeli Anshi 1097.51
35 Karnataka Nagarhole 1205.76
36 Kerala Parambikulam 643.66
37 Kerala Periyar 925
38 Tamil Nadu Anamalai 1479.87
39 Tamil Nadu Kalakad Mundanthurai. KMTR 1601.54
40 Tamil Nadu Mudumalai 688.59
41 Tamil Nadu Sathyamangalam 1408.4
42 Tamil Nadu Meghamalai 1016.57
43 Arunachal Pradesh Kamlang 783.00
44 Arunachal Pradesh Namdapha 2052.82
45 Arunachal Pradesh Pakke 1198.45
46 Assam Kaziranga 1173.58
47 Assam Manas 3150.92
48 Assam Nameri 344

49 Assam Orang 492.46
50 Mizoram Dampa 988
51 West Bengal Buxa 757.90
52 West Bengal Sundarban 2584.89
Eco-bridges for the Movement of Tigers:-
  • Telangana state will have eco-friendly bridges over a canal cutting across tiger corridors linking  Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve (Maharashtra).
  • The Telangana Irrigation Department has given its consent for the construction of the eco-bridges.
Tiger Man of India:-
  • Kailash Sankhala was an Indian naturalist and conservationist. He was the Director of Delhi Zoological Park and Chief Wildlife Warden of Rajasthan.
  • He is best known for his work in preserving tigers. He was also involved in the formation of Project Tiger.
  • Wildlife Institute of India (Dehradun) had prepared a Cheetah reintroduction project under which 20 cheetahs will be translocated to Nauradehi (Madhya Pradesh) from Namibia (Africa).
  • Cheetah is the only mammal to have become extinct in India in the last 1000 years. Cheetah was last spotted in Chattisgarh in 1947 and declared extinct in 1952. It’s IUCN Status is Vulnerable.
Asian Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation:-
  • It’s 3rd conference was held in New Delhi (2016) where WWF and the Global Tiger Forum (GTF) released the updated global tiger number ex. 3,890 wild tigers.

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