The number of tigers in India has increased 1706 in 2010 and 2226 in 2014 as compared to 1411 in the year 2006. The largest tiger reserve in India is ‘Nagarjuna Sagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve’ (Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) with a total area of 3296.31 km square, while the smallest is ‘Bor Tiger Reserve’ in Maharashtra with a total area of 138.12 km square.
The tigers are maintained for their scientific, economic, cultural, aesthetic and ecological values and to preserve for all time areas of biological importance as a national heritage for the benefit, education, training and enjoyment of the people.
- According to the survey conducted by Animal Planet, tiger is world’s favourite animal. It is estimated that India had about 40,000 tigers in 1900 and the number has declined to a mere about 1,800 in 1972.
- The government of India has taken a pioneer initiative for conserving the tiger by launching the Project Tiger in 1973 . IUCN has specified tiger as an endangered species.
- India established Jim Corbett National Park as the first Tiger Reserve on 1st April,1973.
- From 9 tiger reserves since its increased to 50 at present, spreading in 18 tiger range states in India.
- This amounts to around 2.21% of the geographical area of the country.
- It is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Ministry of Environment, Forest and climate Change, providing assistance to the tiger states for its conservation in the designated tiger reserves.
- The tiger reserves are constituted on a core/buffer strategy. The core areas have the legal status of a national park or a sanctuary, whereas the buffer areas are a mix of forest and non-forested land.
- Project Tiger aims to foster an exclusive tiger agenda in the core areas of tiger reserves, with an inclusive people oriented agenda in the buffer area.
- The government had celebrated the year 2010 as The Tiger Year. To attract the international attention towards tiger reserves, with an inclusive people oriented agenda in the buffer area.
Species of Tiger:-
There were 9 species of Tiger in the world but now 3 of them are extinct (Caspian, Javan and Bali Tiger).
- Royal Bengal Tiger: These are found mainly in India, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh.
- Indo-Chinese Tiger: These are found mainly in Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam.
- Malayan Tiger: These are found mainly in the southern region of Malayan Peninsula.
- Sumatra Tiger: These are found only in the Sumatra island of Indonesia.
- Siberian Tiger: It is also known as Amur Tiger. These are found in different parts of Siberia.
- South–China Tiger: These are known as Amoy Tiger or Xiamen Tiger.
Tx2 Programmes :-
- It was launched by World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in 2010 at St Petersburg Tiger Summit held in Russia.
- Under it, Nepal and 12 other range countries had agreed to double the world tiger population by 2022.
National Tiger Conservation Authority:-
- It is a statutory body under the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change constituted under the enabling provision of the Wildlife ( Protection ) Act, 1972 as amended in 2006. Its aim is to decide standards for tiger reserve, planning for tiger protection and to present annual report in the parliament.
- The authority is envisaged with the power to grant permission for tiger protection schemes of the states and to prepare standards and direction for the protection of tigers in the tiger dominated areas.
- In order to prevent illegal poaching, a multipurpose tiger and endangered species Crime Control Bureau was constituted on 6th June 2007.
- No state government shall de-notify a tiger reserve except in public interest with the prior approval of the National Tiger Conservation Authority and National Board for Wildlife.
- According to Tiger Census 2018 (fourth Tiger Census) released on Global Tiger Day (29th July, 2019) the total count of Tigers has risen to 2,967 from 2,226 in 2014 (an increase of 33% in 4 years).
- Tiger Census Report is a four yearly report carried out by Wildlife Institute of India and National Tiger Conservation Authority.
- Worst performers – Chattisgarh and Mizoram.
- Chattisgarh is the only state out of 20 tiger bearing states which has 19 tigers (2014 – 46 tigers).
- No tiger has been found in Buxa (West Bengal) Palamau (Jharkhand) and Dampa (Mizoram) reserves.
- Pench Tiger Reserves ( Madhya Pradesh) recorded) the highest number of tigers.
52 Tiger Reserves in India:-
| ||State ||Name of Tiger Reserve ||Total area(In Sq. Kms.) |
|1 ||Uttarakhand ||Rajaji ||1075.17 |
|2 ||Uttarakhand ||Corbett ||1288.31 |
|3 ||Uttar Pradesh ||Pilibhit ||730.24 |
|4 ||Uttar Pradesh ||Dudhwa ||2201.77 |
|5 ||Bihar ||Valmiki ||899.38 |
|6 ||Andhra Pradesh ||Nagarjunsagar Srisailam ||3296.31 |
|7 ||Chhattisgarh ||Achankamar ||914.01 |
|8 ||Chhattisgarh ||Indravati ||2799.07 |
|9 ||Chhattisgarh ||Udanti Sitanadi ||1842.54 |
|10 ||Jharkhand ||Palamau ||1129.93 |
|11 ||Madhya Pradesh ||Bandhavgarh ||1598.1 |
|12 ||Madhya Pradesh ||Kanha ||2051.79 |
|13 ||Madhya Pradesh ||Panna ||1578.55 |
|14 ||Madhya Pradesh ||Pench ||1179.63 |
|15 ||Madhya Pradesh ||Satpura ||2133.30 |
|16 ||Madhya Pradesh ||Sanjay Dubri ||1674.50 |
|17 ||Maharashtra ||Bor ||138.12 |
|18 ||Maharashtra ||Melghat ||2768.52 |
|19 ||Maharashtra ||Nawegaon-Nagzira ||653.67 |
|20 ||Maharashtra ||Pench ||741.22 |
|21 ||Maharashtra ||Sahyadri ||1165.57 |
|22 ||Maharashtra ||Tadoba-Andhari ||1727.59 |
|23 ||Odisha ||Satkosia ||963.87 |
|24 ||Odisha ||Similipal ||2750 |
|25 ||Rajasthan ||Mukandra Hills ||759.99 |
|26 ||Rajasthan ||Ranthambore ||1411.29 |
|27 ||Rajasthan ||Sariska ||1213.34 |
|28 ||Rajasthan ||Ramgarh Vishdhari ||1052.12 |
|29 ||Telangana ||Amrabad ||2611.39 |
|30 ||Telangana ||Kawal ||2019.12 |
|31 ||Karnataka ||Bandipur ||1456.3 |
|32 ||Karnataka ||Bhadra ||1064.29 |
|33 ||Karnataka ||Biligiri Ranganatha Temple ||574.82 |
|34 ||Karnataka ||Dandeli Anshi ||1097.51 |
|35 ||Karnataka ||Nagarhole ||1205.76 |
|36 ||Kerala ||Parambikulam ||643.66 |
|37 ||Kerala ||Periyar ||925 |
|38 ||Tamil Nadu ||Anamalai ||1479.87 |
|39 ||Tamil Nadu ||Kalakad Mundanthurai. KMTR ||1601.54 |
|40 ||Tamil Nadu ||Mudumalai ||688.59 |
|41 ||Tamil Nadu ||Sathyamangalam ||1408.4 |
|42 ||Tamil Nadu ||Meghamalai ||1016.57 |
|43 ||Arunachal Pradesh ||Kamlang ||783.00 |
|44 ||Arunachal Pradesh ||Namdapha ||2052.82 |
|45 ||Arunachal Pradesh ||Pakke ||1198.45 |
|46 ||Assam ||Kaziranga ||1173.58 |
|47 ||Assam ||Manas ||3150.92 |
|48 ||Assam ||Nameri ||344 |
|49 ||Assam ||Orang ||492.46 |
|50 ||Mizoram ||Dampa ||988 |
|51 ||West Bengal ||Buxa ||757.90 |
|52 ||West Bengal ||Sundarban ||2584.89 |
Eco-bridges for the Movement of Tigers:-
- Telangana state will have eco-friendly bridges over a canal cutting across tiger corridors linking Tadoba Andhari Tiger Reserve (Maharashtra).
- The Telangana Irrigation Department has given its consent for the construction of the eco-bridges.
Tiger Man of India:-
- Kailash Sankhala was an Indian naturalist and conservationist. He was the Director of Delhi Zoological Park and Chief Wildlife Warden of Rajasthan.
- He is best known for his work in preserving tigers. He was also involved in the formation of Project Tiger.
- Wildlife Institute of India (Dehradun) had prepared a Cheetah reintroduction project under which 20 cheetahs will be translocated to Nauradehi (Madhya Pradesh) from Namibia (Africa).
- Cheetah is the only mammal to have become extinct in India in the last 1000 years. Cheetah was last spotted in Chattisgarh in 1947 and declared extinct in 1952. It’s IUCN Status is Vulnerable.
Asian Ministerial Conference on Tiger Conservation:-
- It’s 3rd conference was held in New Delhi (2016) where WWF and the Global Tiger Forum (GTF) released the updated global tiger number ex. 3,890 wild tigers.