What Exactly is a Tornado?
- A tornado is a revolving column of air with a connection to the earth’s surface as well as a cloud, most typically cumulonimbus and, on rare instances, cumulus. Tornadoes are 50-mile-long vertical funnels of rapidly spinning atmosphere with winds of up to 250 km/h. Tornadoes, often known as twisters, originate when thunderstorms and hail collide. Tornadoes are produced by supercell thunderstorms, which are large, persistent thunderstorms.
- Tornadoes are violent, damaging rotations that form as a result of cyclonic evolution in reaction to extremely low pressure and involve mesocyclone generation. Tornadoes are frequently caused by thunderstorms. Bangladesh is the most tornado-prone country in the Indian subcontinent.
- Tornadoes as well as cyclones both occur in India. However, unlike cyclones the frequency of tornado outbreak is very low. Cyclones originate in the Bay of Bengal region as well as in the Arabian Sea region where as Tornadoes of weak strength occur in north-western and north-eastern region of the country causing significant damage to man and material.
What Causes a Tornado
- Moisture in the atmosphere’s lower to mid levels.
- Shear, lift, instability, and moisture are often required for tornado formation.
- The most significant ingredient in the formation of tornadoes is wind shear. When there is wind shear, the winds can sometimes roll into a horizontal column.
- When air is moved from the ground to the atmosphere in a vigorous updraft, the column of air becomes vertical. In this scenario, a storm normally occurs at that point.
- Much of the time, when the storm grows, it transforms into a supercell thunderstorm. These supercell thunderstorms are isolated, discrete cells that do not form part of a storm line.
- Storms that rotate and spin are also known as supercells. When the vertical, spinning column of air and the supercell thunderstorm combine, the storm cloud may produce a tornado.
- Tornadoes occur more frequently in the spring and less frequently in the winter. Stronger winds, wind shear, and atmospheric instability are present in the spring and fall, therefore activity increases during those seasons. Because of solar heating, tornado occurrence is strongly dependent on the time of day.
- Tornadoes in the United States are the most dangerous. There are around 1,800 thunderstorms in process around the world at any given time.
- Air that is unstable. That is, air that will continue to rise after it has begun to rise towards the earth.
- The ability to raise anything. Something has to happen to get the air to start ascending. Heating of air near the ground is the most prevalent lifting force. The air grows lighter and rises as it warms. Thunderstorms are also triggered by moving masses of chilly air that force warm air aloft.
- Plains that are large and flat. Strong tornadoes originate in the United States, owing to the fact that thunderstorms that birth tornadoes have plenty of room to expand.
- Humid air will rise up into the sky and cool and condense into towering clouds, generating thunderstorms, if all of the requirements are met. An updraft is the rising of air into a thunderstorm. Tornadoes can occur within the updraft of a thunderstorm.
Several conditions are necessary for the tornado to form:
1. Several highly warm, damp environments should be present in the area.
2. There should be a direct volatile heat construction.
3. To begin rotation, a method must be present.
A mesocyclone can have a diameter of up to 10 kilometers and rotates vertically over tens of thousands of meters inside the mother or father cloud. Wind speeds accelerate in an ascending vortex because a mesocyclone travels vertically and agrees horizontally (much as ice skaters accelerate while rotating by pulling their arms in nearer to with their figures).
A well-tuned mesocyclone will almost probably bring rain. Heavy huge hail, blustery winds, and illumination are all present. More energy sources are unleashed as more moisture-laden environment is sucked into the blood flow of the mesocyclone, and the spinning of the atmosphere becomes more fast. The faster the changing parcels of air are drawn into the rotation, the narrower the mesocyclone becomes.
Tornadoes can be as small as a few hundred yards in diameter and last anywhere from a few minutes to tens of minutes. The pressures inside a tornado are typically 10% lower than those in the surrounding air.
The inrush convergence caused by such a horizontal stress gradient results in severe wind speeds that can reach or surpass 485 ph. The damage caused by such winds is enormous. When a tornado passes over water, a waterspout forms, and water from the surrounding region is pulled up to 3-5 meters into the funnel.