Sundari Trees in Sundarban Delta UPSC

 Sundari Trees:-

  • The Sundari trees (also known as Kandla) woods are the dominant types of mangrove trees current in the Indian subcontinent. They have been discovered amply in the Sundarbans delta situated near West Bengal. Regional title of this plant that is dominant, Heritiera fomes, regarding the household Sterculiaceae, into the Sundarbans, the mangrove woodlands associated with southern districts. The species is distributed up to about 70 percent associated with woodland



  • The Sundari tree is found in the shrub type with woods including 60 feet in height and six feet girth. They’ve been adjusted to living in harsh conditions. These regions become nursery for the marine micro-organism, and as a supply of fertility of the sea-waters, always check soil erosion and decrease the intensity of marine cyclones.

Sundari Trees in Sundarban:-

  • The title Sundarbans is supposed to be based on the real name of the plant, Sundari. It is adapted to flourishing tide that is highly dominated within the woodland, also to the lower saline and freshwater area. The other type of Sundari, H. littoralis, is mostly based in the part that is western of Sundarbans delta is the biggest of its type into the Indian subcontinent.
  • They are situated close to the banks associated with the Ganges, Brahmaputra, and Meghna Rivers situated within the region near the Bay of Bengal. This area can also be referred to as Tidal Forest. Recently, the Zoology Survey of India has posted a Compendium of animal species in the Indian Sundarbans. 


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  • These are a specific ecosystems, in a position to withstand the salinity of seawater in river mouths, backwaters, saline marshes, and marshy plains into the tropical and sub-tropical areas which can be seaside. They behave as green shields buffering the coastline against ocean erosion, sea-surge, cyclones, and tsunami.
  • They’ve been hughly ecosystem that is productive can handle exporting power and materials to adjacent communities. They help a diverse food chain that is heterotrophic act as nurseries into the life-cycle of some system.
  • The tree is abundantly employed for timber by the locals. Sundari tree is just a timber that is hard therefore the colour is red. This will be suitable for making wood boats and furniture, as well as the lumber, also yields great quality charcoal.
  • The underground muscle of Mangrove plants absorbs an amount that is enormous of and stores it. Thus, the origins are referred to as respiration roots or pneumatophores.
  • These roots are shaped like a pencil as well as in other species, they look such as for instance a knee in certain species. These origins include multiple pores through which oxygen gets in into the cells which are underground. In a few plants, roots work as respiration origins and provide mechanical help to the tree.
  •  The mangrove-dominated Ganges Delta– the Sundarbans – is just an ecosystem that is complex among the three biggest single tracts of mangrove woodlands in the world. The more expensive part is situated in Bangladesh, a smaller portion of it is based on India. The area that is Indian of the forest is expected to be about 40 percent, while the Bangladeshi area is 60 percent.
  • The forest meets the Bay of Bengal; to the eastern, it is bordered by the Baleswar River and to the north, there’s a razor-sharp user interface with intensively cultivated land to the south. The drainage that is normal the upstream areas, other than the key river stations, is everywhere impeded by extensive embankments and polders. 
  • The Sundarbans was originally measured (about 200 years ago) to be of about 16,700 square kilometers (6,400 sq mi). Now it’s dwindled into about one-third of its initial size.
  • The land that is total today is 4,143 square kilometers (1,600 sq mi), including exposed sandbars having a total part of 42 square kilometers (16 sq mi); the residual water section of 1,874 square kilometers (724 sq mi) encompasses streams, little streams, and canals. Rivers into the Sundarbans are meeting places of sodium freshwater and water. Thus, it’s a region of change between your freshwater for the streams originating through the Ganges as well as the saline water associated with the Bay of Bengal.

The Real Story of Sundari Tree

  • Biotic facts here play a significant role in real coastal evolution, and for wildlife, a number of habitats are suffering from including beaches, estuaries, permanent and semi-permanent swamps, tidal flats, tidal creeks, seaside dunes, right back dunes, and levees.
  • The mangrove vegetation itself assists in the development of the latest landmass therefore the vegetation that is intertidal has a substantial role in swamp morphology. The actions of mangrove fauna in the mudflats can be intertidal micromorphological features that trap and hold sediments to produce a substratum for mangrove seeds. 
  • The morphology and development associated with eolian dunes are controlled by an abundance of xerophytic and flowers being halophytic. Creepers, grasses, and sedges stabilize sand dunes and sediments which are uncompacted.
  • The Sunderbans mudflats (Banerjee, 1998) are found during the estuary and on the deltaic islands where velocity that is low of and tidal current happens. The flats are exposed in low tides and submerged in high tides, thus being changed morphologically even yet in one cycle that is tidal. The tides are incredibly large that approximately one-third of the land disappears and reappears each day. The inner elements of the mudflats serve as a home that is ideal mangroves. 


The Sundari tree grows in soil.2

  • The Sundarbans over the Bay of Bengal have developed over the millennia through natural deposition of upstream sediments associated with intertidal segregation. The physiography is dominated by deltaic formations including countless drainage lines connected with the area and subaqueous levees, splays, and flats which can be tidal. 
  • There are marginal marshes above mean tide degree, tidal sandbars and islands using their systems of tidal stations, subaqueous distal bars, and proto-delta clays and sediments being silt. The Sundarbans’ floor differs from 0.9 to 2.11 meters (3.0 to 6.9 ft) above sea degree.
  • The Sundarban forest is based on the delta that is vast the Bay of Bengal formed by the super confluence associated with the Hooghly, Padma (both are distributaries of Ganges), Brahmaputra, and Meghna rivers across southern Bangladesh. The seasonally inundated Sundarbans fresh swamp water lie inland through the mangrove woodlands in the fringe that is coastal.
  • The forest covers 10,000 km2 (3,900 sq mi) of which about 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi) are in Bangladesh. The component that is Indian of is expected to be about 4,110 km2 (1,590 sq mi), of which about 1,700 km2 (660 sq mi) is occupied by water bodies in the types of the river, canals, and creeks of width varying from a few meters to several kilometers.
  • The Sundarbans is intersected with a system that is complex of waterways, mudflats, and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forests. The network that is interconnected makes almost every part associated with the forest accessible by ship. The region is known for the Bengal Tiger (Panthera tigris), in addition to many faunas including types of birds, spotted deer, crocodiles, and snakes.
  • The fertile soils for the delta are at the mercy of intensive use that is human being centuries, as well as the ecoregion is mostly changed into intensive agriculture, with few enclaves of forest staying.
  • The forests being remaining taken together with the Sundarbans mangroves are important habitats for the jeopardized tiger. Also, the Sundarbans acts as a function that is crucial protective barrier for the millions of inhabitants close to Khulna and Mongla contrary to the floods that result from the cyclones.


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  • The Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests are really a tropical broadleaf that’s the moist ecoregion of Bangladesh. It represents the brackish forests which are swamp lie behind the Sundarbans Mangroves, where the salinity is more pronounced.
  • The freshwater ecoregion is definitely an area where in actuality the water is only slightly brackish and becomes quite fresh during the period that is rainy once the freshwater plumes from the Ganges while the Brahmaputra streams push the intruding saltwater away and bring a deposit of silt.
  • It covers 14,600 square kilometers (5,600 sq mi) associated with the Ganges-Brahmaputra that is a vast Delta extending from the north element of Khulna District and completing at the mouth of the Bay of Bengal with scattered portions expanding into India’s western Bengal state. The Sundarbans freshwater swamp forests lie between the upland Lower Gangetic Plain’s moist forests being deciduous the brackish-water Sundarban mangroves bordering the Bay of Bengal.



 Characteristics Of Sundari Trees:- 

  • Research by the Indian Institutes of Technology points out that, unlike other mangrove species, Sundari prefers saline that is very low (5 – 15 PSU / Practical Salinity Unit) and hence can act as a biological indicator of weather modification related to sea degree increase. The tree can thrive luxuriantly under low salinity conditions.
  • Physiological studies have revealed that mangroves aren’t sodium enthusiasts, rather salt-tolerant. But saline that is excessive retard seed germination, impede the growth and growth of mangroves. 
  • As soon as the salinity increases, the species becomes stunted, unusual, and fundamentally disappears. The study shows the negative impact of salinity on leaf chlorophyll for the species may notably affect the rate of photosynthesis, as this pigment is definitely an indispensable material that is raw operating the process.
  • Various research reports have shown that a number of mangrove species grow well at salinities between 4 PSU and 15 PSU and for Sundari, the salinity that is preferred is significantly lower. At 15 PSU the plants become acclimatized to salt after one or two months of visibility.



  • The Sundarbans flora is characterized by the abundance of sundari (Heritiera fomes), gewa (Exoecaria agallocha), goran (ceriops decandra) and keora (Sonneratia apetala) each of which happens prominently throughout the area. The sundari trees (Heritiera littoralis), which gives the forest its name, is a tree that is characteristic of woodland. It yields wood that is difficult useful for building homes and making boats, furniture along with other things.
  • New forest accretions can be conspicuously dominated by keora (Sonneratia apetala) and woodlands that are tidal. It is an indicator species for newly accreted mudbanks and is an species that is essential to wildlife, especially spotted deer (Axis axis). There is certainly an abundance of dhundul or passur (Xylocarpus granatum) and kankra (Bruguiera gumnorhiza) though circulation is discontinuous. Among palms, Poresia coaractata, Myriostachya wightiana and golpata (Nypa fruiticans), and among grasses spear lawn (Imperata cylindrica) and khagra (Phragmites karka) are well distributed. 
  • This types of forests  in Sundarbans include mangrove scrub, littoral woodland, sodium water blended forest, brackish water blended woodland, and forest that is a swamp. Aside from the forest, you can find extensive areas of brackish water and freshwater marshes, intertidal mudflats, sandflats, sand dunes with typical dune vegetation, open grassland on sandy soils, and raised areas supporting a variety of terrestrial shrubs and trees.
  • Since reports, there have been considerable alterations in the status of varied mangrove species and revision that is taxonomic of man-grove flora. But, very research that is small of botanical nature of the Sundarbans happens to be designed to match these changes. 
  • Variations in vegetation have already been explained when it comes to freshwater and salinity that is reduced in the Northeast and variations in drainage and siltation.
  • The Sundarbans has been classified being a moist woodland that is tropical a complete mosaic of seres, comprising primary colonization on brand new accretions to more mature beech woodlands. Historically vegetation types happen recognized in broad correlation with varying quantities of water salinity, freshwater physiography, and flushing.



Sundari Trees Leaves And Trunks:-

  • The tree may grow up to 25 m; trunk straight; leaves elliptic; roots with pneumatophores and root that is blind; bell-shaped flowers are small, about 5 mm, unisexual, orange to pinkish; fruits are created in clusters.
  • The tree could be the chief supply of timber among the folks of the encompassing districts associated with the Sundarbans; the yearly manufacturing is all about 250,000 cu ft; wood is difficult, red in color, used mostly in motorboat building, and in making hard-board, furniture, etc; wood also yields quality charcoal that is good.
  • The Sundari flowers are decreasing as a result of overexploitation, as well as as a result of top conditions which can be dying about 50 percent of these woods suffer from top dying conditions; increased salinity is normally considered responsible for the decrease within the Sundari woods.


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  • Sundari trees are indigenous to coastal elements of the Indo-Pacific, its range extending from the coast that is east of Bangladesh and Malaysia to Myanmar and Thailand. Compared to other types of mangrove, it grows in fewer saline environments and on the drier ground that gets overwhelmed by the tide only infrequently.
  • It thrives on clayey soils and it is the types that are principal these habitats, typically growing on the low banks that form around the edges of saucer-shaped, newly emerged islands. It may be the dominant mangrove species in the area associated with the Sundarbans region.


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Uses Of Sundari Trees:- 

The Sundari Tree may mature to a height of 25 m with bell-shaped flowers that are about 5 mm having a straight trunk and elliptic leaves. The tree also bears fruits, that are formed in clusters. In Sundarbans and also the districts surrounding it, the wood from the Sundari Tree is the source that is the main of among the list of people. The timber is hard and red in color and yields quality that is great and it is usually used in watercraft building, manufacturing real wood floors and furniture. It’s also found in making pilings, bridges, and wharves.


The Sundari tree Beauty of Sunderban delta 2

  • The Sundarbans play a crucial role in the economy of this southwestern area of Bangladesh as well as throughout the market that is national. It is the single supply that is the biggest of forest produce in the country. The forest provides materials being natural wood-based industries. Along with forest that is old-fashioned like timber, fuelwood, pulpwood, etc, the large-scale harvest of non-wood woodland services and products such as for instance thatching materials, honey, beeswax, seafood, crustacean, and mollusk sourced elements of the forest takes place frequently.
  • The vegetated tidal lands associated with the Sundarbans work as a habitat that is essential create nutrients and purifies water. The woodland also traps sediment and nutrient, will act as a storm barrier, shore stabilizer, and energy storage product. Last yet not minimal, the Sunderbans offers an attraction that is aesthetic neighborhood and international tourists. The water houseboat into the Sundarbans can also be an attraction that is recent the tourist.


  • The forest has enormous protective and functions which can be productive. Constituting 51% of the total woodland that is reserved of Bangladesh, it contributes about 41percent of total forest revenue and makes up about about 45% of all of the timber and fuelwood production of the country. Lots of companies (ex. newsprint mill, match factory, hardboard, boat building, furniture making) depend on recyclables obtained from the Sundarbans ecosystem.
  • Non-timber forest products and plantations assist generate employment that is considered income possibilities for at the least half of a million poor seaside individuals. It offers security that is natural life and properties of the coastal population in cyclone-prone Bangladesh.

 Impotance of Sundary Trees:-



In accordance with experts, the conditions which are rising increase in salinity have brought microbial-fungal diseases and bugs. Days gone by five years have already been the warmest with heat record.  Analysis of remote sensing information that there’s a 25 percent trend that is negative mangrove address due to the affectation of die-back on Sundari trees. These areas are now actually at greater threat of decline in the foreseeable future, particularly when extreme events such as for instance cyclones be a little more common.

 Decline Of Sundari Trees:-

  • The brink of extinction in western Bengal due to logging that is extortionate days gone by for the high-value wood and today with seawater rise. “It is very difficult to find a Sundari tree in the Sundarbans since the species features a lower tolerance for saline seawater and there is certainly not much ground that is high, especially in the Indian area of the Sundarbans. Global warming has not simply increased area conditions but additionally the saline content within the seawater.
  •  Mangroves have a tendency to develop in a unique natural environment where there is a combination of a particular percentage of saline water and water that is sweet. Plus the change in this percentage is a specific injury to the mangrove woodlands. Presently, there has been a rise of saline water in Sundarbans, and environmental change is deadly to the Sundari Trees.
  • The Sundari trees are declining because of overexploitation, and also due to top- dying diseases. In the last 30 years, 1.44 million cubic meter Sundari woods worth 2,000 crores have been destroyed after being affected by the most effective- dying condition.
  • The physical development procedures over the coast are affected by a multitude of factors, comprising revolution motions, micro, and macro-tidal cycle long coast currents typical to your tract that is seaside. The coast currents vary greatly combined with the monsoon. These are additionally affected by cyclonic action. Erosion and accretion through these forces keep varying levels, as yet perhaps not correctly measured, of physiographic modification whilst the mangrove vegetation itself supplies remarkable security to the system that is whole. 
  • Per year during each monsoon season just about all the Bengal Delta is submerged, much of it for half. The sediment for the reduced plain that is delta is primarily advected inland by monsoonal coastal setup and cyclonic activities. One of the best challenges individuals living in the Ganges delta might face in the coming years is the risk of increasing sea levels caused mostly by subsidence in the region and partly by environmental change.


  • In lots of for Bangladesh’s mangrove wetlands, freshwater achieving the mangroves was significantly paid off from the 1970s because of diversion of freshwater in the region that is upstream neighboring India by using the Farraka Barrage bordering Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Additionally, the Bengal Basin is gradually tilting towards the east because of neo-tectonic movement, forcing greater freshwater input to Bangladesh Sundarbans. The salinity regarding the Bangladesh Sundarbans is a lot lower than compared to the Indian side because of this. 
  • A 1990 study noted that there “is no proof that ecological degradation within the Himalayas”or perhaps a ‘greenhouse’ induced increase in ocean degree have actually aggravated floods in Bangladesh“; nonetheless, a 2007 report by UNESCO, “Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage” has stated that an anthropogenic 45-centimeter (18 in) rise in sea level (most likely by the end of the century that is 21st in line with the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change), combined with other forms of anthropogenic stress on the Sundarbans, could lead to the destruction of 75 percent of the Sundarbans mangroves. Currently, Lohachara Islands and brand new Moore Island/ South Talpatti Island have disappeared beneath the sea, and Ghoramara Island is half submerged.
  •  The Global Union for Conservation Nature has evaluated this mangrove to be “endangered”. It has a limited range and it is declining because of the clearing of mangroves for seaside development, rice farming, shrimp ponds, and oil palm plantations even though it is typical in places. It is present in several protected areas into the Sundarban in Bangladesh in addition to in India, but here and elsewhere it really is being affected by the top disease that is dying. This causes branches and areas of the crown to perish right back, and that can bring about tree mortality. Gall cankers might be present in affected parts and bugs being wood-boring fungi also attack the woods.





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