Ramsar Convention, Wetland Sites and Montreux Record UPSC

Ramsar Convention on Wetlands Sites    

  •  The Ramsar covention on wetlands that was signed in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971. Negotiations for the convention began in the 1960s between various governments and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to protect wetlands and their resources. It was finally implemented in 1975. In India, there are 46 Ramsar Sites designated under the Ramsar Convention. 


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  • It is an intergovernmental pact that provides a framework for national and international initiatives to protect wetlands and their sources.
  • To be designated as a wetland of international significance, it must benefit vulnerable, endangered, or threatened species and attract at least 20,000 water birds.
  • Ramsar may be the forerunner of current multinational ecological accords on the preservation and use of renewable resources, and unlike newer ones, its terms are quite straightforward.
  • Establishing commitments at the site level at the recognized degree of the national plan is unusual.
  • The Contracting Parties Meeting has further refined and interpreted the core tenets of this treaty language, ensuring that the Convention’s task remains relevant to the dynamically changing international environment throughout time.
  • The Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, Particularly as a Waterfowl Environment, is the pact’s formal title, and it reflects the pact’s early focus on the conservation and wise use of wetlands, primarily as habitat for waterbirds.
  • The Convention’s implementation scope has been expanded to include all aspects of wetland protection and management.
  • Wetlands are increasingly recognized as ecosystems that are essential for biodiversity conservation and sustainable development, therefore fitting the Convention’s broad scope. The increasingly common use of the treaty’s short term, the “Convention on Wetlands,” is perfectly appropriate for this explanation.
  • The Convention went into effect in 1975, and there are currently 171 contracting or member states in every corner of the world (as of January 2019). The Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance (the “Ramsar List”) may represent the Convention’s “flagship,” yet the principal Ramsar message may be the importance of long-term wetlands management.
  • Currently, the functions have designated more than 2,220 wetlands for special protection as “Ramsar Sites,” with a total area of 214 million hectares (2.14 million kilometers that are square, larger than the outer lining section of Mexico).
  • The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) serves as the Convention’s Depositary; however, the Ramsar Convention is not a part of UNESCO’s mandate. The Ramsar Convention’s goal could be to conserve and wisely utilize all wetlands as a contribution to long-term global development.
  • The Convention is solely answerable to its Meeting of the Contracting Parties (COP), and its day-to-day operation has been assigned to a Secretariat under the competence of the Standing Committee elected by the COP. IUCN–the Global Union for Conservation of Nature in Gland, Switzerland–manages the Ramsar Secretariat on a contract basis.
  • The Ramsar Convention’s objective, as stated by the Parties in 1999 and processed in 2002, is “to preserve and wisely utilise all wetlands through local and national efforts and global cooperation as a contribution to attaining long-term development for the globe.”
  • In 1981, India became a continuing celebration of the conference. Following the enforcement, the government launched many programs to protect mangroves, wetlands, and red coral reefs.
  • In India, a plan for wetlands management and preservation was initiated in 1987. Throughout the years, 115 wetlands have been identified for preservation under the programs based on the recommendations of the National Wetlands Committee.
  • Under the Ramsar Convention, India now has 46 recognized  of wetlands sites.

Ramsar Sites In India | UPSC Notes | Career Launcher IAS


  • World Ramsar Convention, a listing of Wetland sites happens to be ready as Wetlands of International importance under Montreux Record.
  • Montreux’s record highlights sites that require preservation interest on a priority foundation. Two Wetlands sites of India in this record are Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan, and Loktak Lake, Manipur.
  • Wetlands tend to be areas where water could be the factor that is main the environment therefore the connected plant and animal life. They happen where in fact the water has reached or near the area associated with land, or in which the land is covered by water.
List Of Ramsar Sites In India With Map (Latest) - UPSC
  • Wetlands are regions that are transitional between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, with the terrestrial water table being at or near the area, or even the land being covered in shallow water. Marshes, swamps, flooding flatlands, bogs, peatlands, low ponds, littoral regions of larger liquid bodies, and tidal marshes are all examples of wetlands.
  • Wetlands are unique, but they all have one thing in common: they are made up of a complex of essential elements — the earth, fluid, animals, and flowers — that perform a variety of activities and generate a variety of products that have been exploited by people for hundreds of years. Of course, not every wetland exhibits all of these characteristics, but the majority do.
  • Wetland is a place where water is the major environmental component, together with the plant and animal life that it supports. There are 27,403 wetlands in India, with 23,444 being inland wetlands and 3,959 being coastal wetlands. Wetlands make up 18.4 percent of the country’s total area, with paddy farming accounting for 70% of that.
  • These generally include mangroves, peatlands, marshes, streams, lakes, deltas, floodplains, flooded woodlands rice fields, and reefs that are coral.
  • In India, weather, geology, habitat, and geography all have a role in the environment. Wetlands may be found in all biogeographic zones and exhibit a wide range of characteristics.
  • Wetlands provide a variety of benefits, including liquid flow regulation, fisheries, habitats for flowers, critters, and microorganisms, recreational opportunities, and tourism.
  • The Ministry of Environment and Woodlands (MoEF) would be the body in charge of conducting the preservation program on wetlands, mangroves, and red coral reefs in India.
  • The program, which began in the 1980s, is led by a National Committee on Wetlands, Mangroves, and Coral Reefs, which was formed to advise the government on proper conservation tips and programs for ecosystems, to recommend websites for specific conservation tasks, and to identify study and knowledge issues.
  • Wetland conservation and management activities are prioritized in the United Kingdom, and monetary support was provided by the Ministry of Environment (MoEF 2001).
The Convention on Wetlands and its mission | Ramsar
  • Ten areas that are biogeographic been identified in India: Trans-Himalaya, Himalaya, Semi-arid, Desert, Gangetic simple, Deccan, Western Ghats, North-east, Coasts and Islands (Rodgers and Panwar 1988). The wetlands in the Trans-Himalaya are really essential for the safety of wild birds, specifically for globally threatened species such as the Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis.
  • A number of the essential altitude is large such as for instance Tso Kar, Tsomoriri, Pangong Tso, and marshes such as Hanley, Phoktsey, and Chushul, are situated in this area; many of them becoming defined as IBAs and potential Ramsar international sites.
World Wetlands Day: 11 reasons why wetlands are vital for humans and animals
  • The Gangetic Plain is the world’s most fertile region, with approximately 3,000 years of human habitation in a single year. This location is well-known for its flood wetlands, which are common in the Gangetic Plain and within the Himalaya, where practically all of the channels originate. Every year, large areas are flooded, and when the water recedes, it seeks low-lying areas to fill.
  • In this region, a few major and potential Ramsar International sites with considerable waterfowl communities have been discovered. Sultanpur in Gurgaon, Bhindawas in Rohtak, Patna jheel in Etah, Lakh- Bahosi in Farrukhabad, Saman in Mainpuri, Sandi in Hardoi, Kawar in Begusarai, and Nawabganj in Unnao are among the major wetlands attracting brilliant waterfowl.
  • The marshes and wetlands of the Gangetic drainage system reveal a past that is unquestionably extremely long. As a result, a large number of species are found, including the Striated Marsh Warbler Megalurus palustris, Bristled Grassbird Chaetornis striatus, Rufous-rumped Grassbird Graminicola bengalensis, Yellow-bellied Prinia Prinia flaviventris, Swamp Francolin Francolinus gularis, Bengal Florican Houbaropsis ben
  • The Brahmaputra floodplains, as well as the marshes and swamps that can be seen whenever you look towards the mountains of north-east India, sometimes known as Himalayan foothills, are vital for humans and biodiversity.
  • The Brahmaputra Valley, with its abundant rainfall and streams, provides wintering grounds for large flocks of waterbirds.
  • Many of the waterbirds in this area are migratory, while others are local inhabitants. The wetlands in this area sustain a wide variety of species; many IBAs and potential Ramsar sites have been discovered in this area.
Maharashtra to propose five wetland sites for recognition as Ramsar sites
  • When the conditions are typically appropriate, the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat has large saline areas where both Greater Phoenicopterus roseus and lesser Phoenicopterus little flamingos breed. The wetlands of the Deccan peninsula support a sizable portion of the global population of the Spot-billed Pelican Pelecanus philippensis, with multiple colonies based on water storage reservoirs or ‘tanks’ on the Deccan plateau in south India.
  • The coastline parts of India are likely from a more overlooked biogeographic zone, primarily because they lack charismatic kinds such as the Tiger and Rhinoceros. The Chilika Lake (IBA and Ramsar site) and Bhitarkanika (IBA and Ramsar site) in Orissa, the purpose Calimere Wildlife Sanctuary (IBA and Ramsar Site) in Tamil Nadu, the Sunderbans (IBA and Ramsar website) in western Bengal, the Sewri mudflats (IBA and Ramsar site) in Maharashtra, and the Kori Creek in Gujarat, for example, all have wild birds.
Five wetlands are generally acknowledged:
  • Marine (coastal wetlands including seaside lagoons, rugged shores, seagrass beds, and coral reefs).             
  • Estuarine (including deltas, tidal marshes and mudflats, and mangrove swamps).
  • Lacustrine (wetlands associated with ponds)
  • Riverine (wetlands along rivers and channels);
  • Palustrine (meaning “marshy” – marshes, swamps, and bogs).
  • Human-made wetlands include fish and shrimp ponds, farm ponds, irrigated land (rice paddies), salt pans, dams, reservoirs, gravel pits, waste-water treatment ponds, and canals. The Ramsar Convention has actually followed a Ramsar Classification of Wetland Kinds, which includes 46 different types of wetlands that are divided into three categories: marine and coastal wetlands, inland wetlands, and human-made wetlands.
  • According to the meeting’s text, marine wetlands are considered wetlands up to a depth of six meters at low tide (the figure is thought to come from the maximum depth to which water ducks can dive while feeding), but the treaty also allows for waters deeper than six yards, as well as countries, to be included in the boundaries of protected wetlands.
  • It’s also worth noting that, regardless of their specific level, lakes and rivers are recognized to be included in the Ramsar definition of wetlands in their entirety.
Protection of Wetlands:-
  • The Register of Wetlands is one of the most effective habitats in the world. They are true biological treasure troves, providing the fluids and main efficiency that innumerable species of flowers and pets need on to thrive.
  • They have an ecological character, and they support large populations of birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates. Wetlands are also important repositories of hereditary plant material. Rice, for example, which is actually a wetland, is prevalent and may form the basis of more than half of the population’s food as a result of technical advances.
  • The degradation of wetlands, driven by the rapidly expanding gap between liquid demand and supply, makes it more difficult to access potable water for personal wellness, food production, economic development, and geopolitical stability.
  • Despite efforts to preserve a minimal amount of water for ecosystems, the ability of wetlands to continue to provide benefits to persons and wildlife, including clean and reliable water supplies, is dwindling.
Location of major wetlands in Southwestern India showing geological... | Download Scientific Diagram
  • Efforts to aid water allocation to ecosystems, such as environmental movement demands, imposing upper limits on water allocations, and new legislation, must be enhanced.
  • The various functions of wetland ecosystems, as well as their value to humans, have been increasingly recognized and understood in recent years.
  • As a result, enormous sums of money have been spent to restore wetlands’ hydrological and biological functions that have been removed or damaged. But it isn’t enough – the fight is on to improve habits on a global scale as the world’s leaders try to deal with the rising water problem as well as the consequences of climate change. This is especially at a time when the world’s population is expected to grow by 75 million every year for the next 15 years.
  • As the impact of climate change on our ecosystem lifelines becomes more apparent, the ability of wetlands to adapt to changing conditions will become increasingly important to human populations and species worldwide.
  • A global focus on wetlands and the services they provide, maybe not least in pursuit of the global Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) agreed upon in September 2015.
  • The SDGs, particularly those related to water, the environment, marine resources, and ecosystems, place a premium on wetlands.
  • The importance of wetlands for the environment and for human societies has traditionally been undervalued within these calculations due to the difficulty of assigning dollar values to the wetland ecosystem’s values and benefits, products or services.
  • Plan and decision-makers frequently make development choices based on simple computations for the advantages that are monetary cons regarding the proposals before them – the importance of wetlands for the environment and for human societies has traditionally been underrated within these calculations due to the difficulty of assigning dollar values to the wetland ecosystem
  • As a result, as more economists and other experts work on the go, the value of ecosystem services is expanding. It is a difficult task, but in order for decision-makers to have the correct information in front of them in regards to the Plan, decision-makers frequently make development choices based on simple computations for the benefits, which can be financial disadvantages associated with the proposals before them – the importance of wetlands for the environment and for personal communities is frequently undervalued in these calculations due to the difficulty of assigning values to wetlands.
  • As a result, more economists and other experts are working on the developing field of ecosystem service valuation.Wetlands are extremely important for the health, welfare, and safety of people who live in or near them, and they must be protected at all times. These are typically among the world’s most productive environments, with a wide range of options. Criteria for identifying Wetlands of International Importance
What good are wetlands? 5 essential reads
  • “Wetlands should be considered for the List because of their intercontinental relevance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology, or hydrology,” it says, adding that “wetlands of international significance to waterfowl at any era should be included in the first instance.”
  • The process of developing formal criteria for identifying globally critical wetlands began in 1974, but the official criteria were agreed upon for the first time at COP1 in 1980.
  • The Parties updated the Criteria again in 1987 and 1990, and at COP6 in 1996, they added brand-new Criteria based on fish and fisheries; at COP9 (2005), a ninth Criterion was established to pay for diverse non-avian wetland-dependent creatures.
  • Recognizing that there may be instances where a Ramsar site is selected for the record prior to the adoption of the most recent version of Criteria and will no longer meet any of the current Criteria.
  • The procedure was that the Secretariat, in collaboration with the Contracting Party concerned, determines just what activities may be required to raise, improve, or restore the wetland’s functions and values to the level at which it would be eligible for inclusion in the number.
  • The Contracting Party concerned may advise the Secretariat to withdraw the site from the listing if there is no way to extend or enhance/restore its activities or values, and the ongoing celebration then applies the payment terms set forth in Article 4.2 of the meeting.
  • This has occurred at only three sites (all inside the territory of the receiving Party) where wetlands designated in the Convention’s early stages, prior to the inclusion of any designation aid or requirements, were determined to never match the later utilized criteria.
  • When it comes to considering the deletion or constraint of these boundaries of a specific Ramsar Site annexed to Resolution, the Parties adopted advice that outlines a thoughtful eight-step approach that Parties should follow if removal or limitation is ever required.
The Montreux Record:-
  • The Montreux Record is a list of wetland areas, one of many Wetlands of International Importance, where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution, or any other human-caused disturbance. It is included in the Ramsar List. The working definitions of “ecological character” and “change in ecological character” have been adopted by the Conference of this ongoing function.
  • The Recommendation of the Conference Concerning the Contracting Parties established and launched the Montreux Record (1990). The Montreux Record should always be utilized to select priority locations for good nationwide and global preservation attention, according to the resolution. In Resolution, the functions believe that “the voluntary inclusion of the specific site in the Montreux Record is a helpful device open to getting functions in situations where they expressed it:
a) Showing nationwide commitment to re-solve the unfavorable changes would assist in their particular resolution;
b) Highlighting particularly severe instances could be useful at the national and/or intercontinental levels;
c) Positive nationwide and/or intercontinental levels.
d) When looking at the allocation of resources available under monetary systems, including the Record would provide direction.”
  • The resolution established more accurate procedures for the implementation of the Montreux Record approach, as well as advice on how to include Ramsar Sites in the Record and remove them from it.
  • Resolution had recently revised this advice. Websites could be added to and removed from the Record only with the agreement of the Contracting Parties. When looking at the Montreux Record in 2016, 47 Ramsar sites are present– 32 sites that were recorded on the Montreux Record in January have since been eliminated.
  • On the request of the Contracting Party in question, the Secretariat may dispatch a “Ramsar Advisory Mission” to investigate the situation at one or more specific Montreux Record sites, provide sound advice on the steps to take, and assess the desirability of removing a site from the Montreux Record once the actions have been completed successfully.

The procedure for adding a site to Montreux Record.

  • The country (contracting party) where the site is located should request that it be included in the register.
  • Alternatively, if the bureau receives information on a current or future adverse change to a site, it may bring this information to the attention of the Contracting Party concerned and inquire whether a Ramsar site should be included in the Montreux Record. A site, on the other hand, can only be added to the record with the consent of the Contracting Party concerned.

Ramsar Sites of India

  • The contractual party is responsible for providing any site-related information.
  • The convention’s Scientific and Expert Review Panel (STRP) gives technical advice on changes in ecological character that have occurred or may occur.
  • In cooperation with the Bureau, the contracting party will next decide whether the site should be included in the Montreux Record.
  • Contracting Parties must submit to the Convention Bureau a report on the conservation status of sites in the Montreux Record.

The Process of Elimination of Montreux Record sites.

  • The bureau may get such requests from the government or other sources, implying that the threat has passed.
  • The contracting party must provide specific information on the effectiveness of the measures taken, proposed monitoring and assessment systems, and the extent to which the ecological character has been restored.
  • The technical opinion is sought from the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP), which is then submitted to the contracting party.
  • A wetland will be removed at the request of the Contracting Party and after the STRP’s advice and/or comment has been taken into account.

The Advantages of the Montreux Record

  • A site’s voluntary participation in Montreux Record is a beneficial tool because –
  • It would aid Contracting Parties in their efforts to resolve unfavourable changes at home;
  • At the national and/or international level, highlighting particularly serious situations would be advantageous;
  • Inclusion on the Record would serve as a guide for allocating resources made accessible through financial instruments; and
  • At the request of the Contracting Party, the Bureau can also provide technical help known as the Ramsar Advisory Mission.

The process of Removal of a site from Montreux Record

  • The bureau may get such requests from the government or other sources, implying that the threat has passed.
  • The contracting party must provide specific information on the effectiveness of the measures taken, proposed monitoring and assessment systems, and the extent to which the ecological character has been restored.
  • The technical opinion is sought from the Scientific and Technical Review Panel (STRP), which is then submitted to the contracting party.
  • A wetland will be removed at the request of the Contracting Party and after the STRP’s advice and/or comment has been taken into account.

Benefits of inclusion in Montreux Record

  • A site’s voluntary participation in Montreux Record is a beneficial tool.
  • It would aid Contracting Parties in their efforts to resolve unfavourable changes at home;
  • At the national and/or international level, highlighting particularly serious situations would be advantageous;
  • Inclusion on the Record would serve as a guide for allocating resources made accessible through financial instruments; and
  • At the request of the Contracting Party, the Bureau can also provide technical help known as the Ramsar Advisory Mission.

Montreux Record Sites in India

  • The Montreux Record currently includes two Indian sites: Loktak Lake in Manipur and Keoladeo National Park in Rajasthan.
  • Due to siltation clogging the lake’s outlet, Chilika Lake in Odisha was the first Indian site to be placed on the Montreux Record in 1993. The lake’s salinity dropped as a result of this.
  • It was removed from the list in 2002 after a series of interventions, the most notable of which was the successful dredging of the lake mouth, which opened it up to the Bay of Bengal.
  • According to studies, every rupee spent on the Chilika Lake restoration since 1991 has returned INR 15, making it a model example for the restoration of other wetlands in India.
  • The Montreux Record has been a valuable instrument in the management and conservation of important wetland sites that have been harmed by human interference.
  • It complements the countries’ domestic efforts and helps to supplement their resources and efforts in the conservation of our natural resources.
  • After successfully restoring their natural character, 32 sites that had been included on the Montreux Record had been removed from it as of 2018. (though one of those had been placed upon it again).

Features of Wetlands:-    

  • The interactions of actual, biological, and chemical aspects of a wetland within the infrastructure that is”naturally associated with the earth, such as soils, liquid, flowers, and animals, allow the wetland to perform many vital features, such as water storage; storm defense and flooding mitigation; drought buffering; shoreline stabilization and erosion control; groundwater recharge and discharge; water purification; sediment retention
  • Flood protection as well as water treatment. Filtration of sediments from in-touch water. Nutrient recycling and groundwater replenishment go go in hand. Shortlines are protected from erosion by being kept short. Protecting the shortlines against erosion. Managing urban areas’ flow prevention and run-off to prevent excessive run-off.
Importance of Wetlands:-
  • In addition, wetlands have unique characteristics in the human social heritage; they are associated with religious and cosmological philosophy and religious values, provide visual and imaginative stimulation, provide archaeo-rational evidence from the distant past, provide wildlife sanctuaries, and form the foundation of important local social, financial, and cultural institutions.
  • Ecosystems are described as a complex of lifestyle communities (including real human communities) and environment (non-living ecosystem components) interacting (through Ecological procedures) as a practical unit providing a variety of benefits to people in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA), published in 2006. (Ecosystem Services).

Wetlands play a vital role in controlling floods. Wetlands help to lessen the impacts of flooding by absorbin… | Flood prevention, Wetland, Plant life cycle project

  • Provisioning, managing, and services that have a culturally correct impact on people are all included in the term “Ecosystem Services,” as are supporting services that are required to keep these and other solutions running. The MA’s Synthesis Report for the Ramsar Convention contains additional information.
  • Wetlands and water provide ecosystem services as well as human well-being. This means that the objects, functions, and qualities established in Resolution VI.1 (1996), as well as the words currently used in prior Ramsar directions and papers, are displayed alongside those found in the MA inside the Ramsar Convention framework.
  • These “ecosystem services” and “ecosystem components” can only be conserved if wetlands’ ecological processes are permitted to continue to function. Regrettably, despite significant improvement in recent decades, wetlands remain among the world’s many vulnerable ecosystems, owing primarily to drainage, pollution, and over-exploitation of their resources.
  • According to a recent WWF assessment (Living Earth Report 2014: Species and Rooms, People and Places. Gland, Switzerland), aquatic ecosystems lost 76 percent of their species populations between 1970 and 2010, while the State of the World’s Wetlands report published by Ramsar in 2015 found that 64 percent of the world’s wetlands have been lost since 1900.
Intergovernmental convention on wetlands?
  • An affirmation of and commitment to the meeting’s axioms, supporting the establishment of a nationwide array of policies and measures, including legislation, that assist nations in making the most use of their unique wetland resources in their pursuit of renewable development;
  • The opportunity for a country to have its voice heard on the primary debate board, which is intergovernmental global cooperation on wetlands preservation and smart exploitation.
  • It increases the visibility and reputation of the wetlands that have been classified as Wetlands of International Importance, and hence the opportunities for aid in their preservation and utilization.
  • Provides access to the most recent details and recommendations on the adoption of the Convention’s internationally accepted standards, such as requirements for determining wetlands of international importance, suggestions for applying the smart use concept, and recommendations on wetlands administration planning;
  • Through links with Ramsar Secretariat staff and collaborators, as well as the utilization of the Ramsar Advisory Mission, provides access to expert national and site-related wetland preservation and administration advice.
  • Stimulates international cooperation on a wetland problem and increases the chance of funding for wetland initiatives, either via the Convention’s own modest grants assistance programs or through interactions with multilateral and bilateral external aid bodies.
  • According to National Reports submitted by obtaining Parties, the conference has frequently been crucial in halting or avoiding negative impacts on wetlands. Here are a few examples that are representative:
  • When the town council joined the effort to designate Fujimae as a Ramsar Site in 2001, plans to build a rubbish dump were abandoned.
  • When the United Kingdom government concluded in December 2003 that “the internationally essential status of a few of the habitats… means any potentially unfavorable effect would require the government to show it had considered all reasonable options,” it abandoned plans to build a significant new airport at the Cliffe Marshes Ramsar international site, the main Thames Estuary in England. In light of this consultation, the government is satisfied that there would be suitable alternatives to Cliffe.”
  • Cancellation of plans to build a tourist attraction near a Ramsar Site in the Caribbean area of Bonaire, when looking at the Netherlands Antilles, following a ruling by the Dutch Crown Court in 2007 that the guidelines on buffer zones and environmental impact assessments adopted by the Conference of the Contracting Parties for the Ramsar Convention must be taken into account.
  • According to recent studies by independent ecological legal experts, Ramsar site managers in Africa and the United States stated that the designation of Ramsar Sites has actually helped retain the conservation condition of those wetlands, based on the common belief that “the designation of a site as a Wetland of International Benefit was more than a mere honor; the condition offered concrete benefits.”
  • In those surveys, higher public knowledge, increased participation by local stakeholders, better support for site conservation, increased accessibility preservation financing, and enhanced chances for study and ecotourism were all mentioned as benefits of site designation.
  • Furthermore, the trend is to designate wider and larger regions as Ramsar international sites, in order to assist safeguard watersheds, catchment areas, and deltas, as well as ensure their proper usage. The Queen Maud Gulf, the Okavango Delta, and the Zambezi River Delta are among them.
  • When it comes to the Ramsar Convention, wetlands don’t have to be of international significance to play a role in their protection and usage. The fact that your state is hosting a contracting celebration can help you build the necessary legislation and management framework to maintain the long-term efficiency and environmental functions of most of its wetlands.
Conservation of wetlands:-
50 years of international cooperation for the protection of wetlands - ICEM
1. To designate wetlands for the menu of Wetlands of International benefit.
2. To formulate and apply planning to be able to promote the preservation of listed sites.
3. The Secretariat of any improvement in the type that is environmental of sites.
4. To compensate for almost any loss of wetland sources if the listed wetland is fixed or deleted.
5. To use Ramsar criteria for distinguishing wetlands of international importance.
6. To make use of the part of the Ramsar classification and datasheet system for describing listed international sites.
7. To consider administration that is proper after designation and, where appropriate, to utilize the Montreux Record.
8. To adopt thereby applying the Guidelines for implementation of the employment this is certainly smart, notably as to elaboration and implementation of national wetland policies, additionally the Guidance this is certainly extra on use.
9. In order to make an effect that is environmental be- fore transformations of wetlands.
10. To increase waterfowl communities through the handling of proper wetlands.
11. To help make a national wetland that will recognize significant sites for wetland biodiversity.
12. To teach workers competence in wetland analysis, administration, and wardening.
Wetlands of International importance and conservation
World Wetlands Day | Wetland Conservation Efforts
  • To promote the preservation of wetlands by combining forward-thinking national policies with international engagement.
  • Consult with other contracting roles to implement duties originating from the meeting, particularly in the areas of shared wetlands and liquid systems, as well as shared kinds.

Causes of Wetland Depletion:-

  • Clearing wetlands for farming usage.
  • High rate of pollution or other human interference.
  • Discharge of industrial effluents.
  • Overgazing.
  • Sand mining through the beds of wetlands.
  • Environment and deforestation destruction.
  • Waste runoff from the habitats being local.
  • Climate boost and change in temperature.
Wetland Conservation and Management Rules, 2017:
Kashmir's Ramsar sites, a case of silent death
  • It is required for the establishment of a permanent state wetlands authority in practically every state and union territory.
  • The government will choose one expert in each of the following fields: ecology, hydrology, fisheries, and landscape preparation.
  • The principles forbid activities such as wetland preservation for non-wetland uses, such as sorting, the establishment and growth of sectors, waste dumping, and the release of untreated wastes and effluents from industries, towns and cities, cities, villages, and so on.
  • All wetlands’ digital inventory. According to this, state governments must compile a list of all wetlands and notify the public within six months. A comprehensive Digital Inventory is generated based on it.
  • A National Wetlands Committee is being formed to monitor the implementation of these principles and manage the states’ continued work.
Exactly How Wetlands Preserves wildlife:-
  • A variety of animals, including bacteria, beetles, amphibians, reptiles, and fish, as well as various flowers and mammals, form the basis of the wetland ecosystem and are at risk of losing their habitat in India’s dwindling wetlands. Wetlands retain vitamins from rivers and ponds, and they support diverse species in an ecosystem, making them extremely nutrient-dense.
  • Additionally, this lessens nutrient water loading figures, lowering the likelihood of eutrophication—thick improvement blooms inside the water’s position and light that is avoiding eutrophication.
  • However, the majority of the wetlands serve as homes for birds. This is the main feature of wild birds: up to 310 of the country’s 370 guest species use the country’s diverse wetlands as short-term residences in India, and they become the habitat. As a result of the deterioration of their wetlands over time, India has lost a large number of essential visitors.
  • For instance, the Siberian Crane was discovered in India 18 years ago. Although there is no written announcement, it is often assumed that they will never contact you again. The drainage that is draining Bharatpur, their main-stream habitat, is the primary cause of this loss. And, given that Keoladeo Ghana National Park is a Ramsar Wetland Site and a UNESCO World Record International Site, this will happen very soon. The tourism effect has a geographical impact on the commercial weather.
  • In September of this year, India announced a five-year wetlands preservation strategy in the National Action Request Conservation of Migratory Birds and their Specific Habitats (2018-2023), a multi-state activity policy for safeguarding and increasing the population of migratory wild birds in the country. If followed correctly, this strategy should aid in the restoration of at least a few of India’s most well-known wetland biodiversity hotspots, such as Chilika Lake, Sundarbans, and Nal Sarovar, among others.
List of Ramsar Wetland Sites:-
Sl. No. Name of Site State Location Date of Declaration Area
(in Sq. km.)
1 Kolleru Lake Andhra Pradesh 19.8.2002 901
2 Deepor Beel Assam 19.8.2002 40
3 Kabartal Wetland Bihar 21.07.2020 26.2
4 Nalsarovar Bird Sanctuary Gujarat 24.09.2012 120
5 Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary Gujarat 05.04.2021 6.99
6 Wadhvana Wetland Gujarat 05.04.2021 6.3
7 Sultanpur National Park Haryana 25.05.2021 1.425
8 Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary Haryana 25.05.2021 4.12
9 Chandertal Wetland Himachal Pradesh 8.11.2005 0.49
10 Pong Dam Lake Himachal Pradesh 19.8.2002 156.62
11 Renuka Wetland Himachal Pradesh 8.11.2005 0.2
12 Wular Lake Jammu & Kashmir 23.3.1990 189
13 Hokera Wetland Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 13.75
14 Surinsar-Mansar Lakes Jammu and Kashmir 8.11.2005 3.5
15 Tsomoriri Lake Jammu and Kashmir 19.8.2002 120
16 Asthamudi Wetland Kerala 19.8.2002 614
17 Sasthamkotta Lake Kerala 19.8.2002 3.73
18 Vembanad Kol Wetland Kerala 19.8.2002 1512.5
19 Tso Kar Wetland Complex Ladakh 17.11.2020 95.77
20 Bhoj Wetlands Madhya Pradesh 19.8.2002 32.01
21 Lonar Lake Maharashtra 22.7.2020 4.27
22 Nandur Madhameshwar Maharashtra 21.6.2019 14.37
23 Loktak Lake Manipur 23.3.1990 266
24 Bhitarkanika Mangroves Orissa 19.8.2002 650
25 Chilka Lake Orissa 1.10.1981 1165
26 Beas Conservation Reserve Punjab 26.9.2019 64.289
27 Harike Lake Punjab 23.3.1990 41
28 Kanjli Lake Punjab 22.1.2002 1.83
29 Keshopur-Miani Community Reserve Punjab 26.9.2019 3.439
30 Nangal Wildlife Sanctuary Punjab 26.9.2019 1.16
31 Ropar Lake Punjab 22.1.2002 13.65
32 Keoladeo Ghana NP Rajasthan 1.10.1981 28.73
33 Sambhar Lake Rajasthan 23.3.1990 240
34 Point Calimere Wildlife and Bird Sanctuary Tamil Nadu 19.8.2002 385
35 Rudrasagar Lake Tripura 8.11.2005 2.4
36 Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh 19.9.2019 2.246
37 Parvati Agra Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh 2.12.2019 7.22
38 Saman Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh 2.12.2019 52.63
39 Samaspur Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh 3.10.2019 79.94
40 Sandi Bird Sanctuary Uttar Pradesh 26.9.2019 30.85
41 Sarsai Nawar Jheel Uttar Pradesh 19.9.2019 16.13
42 Sur Sarovar Uttar Pradesh 21.8.2020 4.31
43 Upper Ganga River
(Brijghat to Narora Stretch)
Uttar Pradesh 8.11.2005 265.9
44 Asan Conservation Reserve Uttarakhand 21.7.2020 4.444
45 East Kolkata Wetlands West Bengal 19.8.2002 125
46 Sunderbans Wetland West Bengal 30.1.2019 4230

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