The seasons in India are divided into different categories:-
The Indian subcontinent has extensive latitudinal measurements. From Kanyakumari (Cape-Camorin) to Jammu and Kashmir, there are a variety of climates. The Indian Meteorological Division, on the other hand, classifies India’s weather into four seasons:
A. Seasons of North-East Monsoon
1. The winter season, which runs from mid-December until mid-March.
2. A warmer climate from mid-March until May.
B. Seasons of South-West Monsoon
3. The rainy season, from September to June
4. The retreating monsoon season, from mid-December to October.
The Cold-Weather Season
- In the northern half of the country, the cold-weather season begins in late November, and in the rest of India, it begins in early December.
- A high-pressure area develops in north India, with a north-westerly circulation prevailing along the Indus and Ganges Valleys. This season, the southern section of the subtropical jet flow is passing over northern India.
- The latitude is definitely in the middle, reaching down to around 25 degrees north at the surface. The basic movement south of the latitude is from the northeast. The winter monsoon is a wind that blows from the north-east. In Peninsular India, the wind usually blows from east to west.
- Because of their path through the Bay of Bengal, the easterlies are wet and provide some precipitation along the south-eastern coastal districts.
- There is a decrease in fundamental heat from south to north during the frigid winter months. The isotherms are almost perpendicular to the latitudes. When it comes to the thirty days of January, the 18 degrees C isotherm works in an east-west direction across the country, connecting the Tapi estuary in the west and the Mahanadi delta in the east.
- When looking at the thirty days of January, the north-western parts of India’s Great flatlands (Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan) experience significantly less than 15 degrees C mean month-to-month temperature.
- When looking at the flatlands of Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan (Amritsar, Hissar, and Jodhpur), the evening temperature sporadically reads below the freezing point, creating a floor frost problem.
- When you look at the temperature that is typically following in chilly waves in the northern flatlands of India, there is frequently a loss of more than 6 degrees C. In south India, the isotherms bend to the south and run approximately parallel to the coast.
- By around 2 degrees Celsius, the western coast is warmer than the eastern shore. When looking at the Great Plains, the diurnal range of temperatures is mostly around 15 degrees C, and only about 5 degrees C when looking at the seaside aspects of the Peninsular.
- January may be the coldest thirty days of the year in India, especially in northern India. Peninsular India, on the other hand, lacks a clearly defined cold-weather season. Thiruvananthapuram and Chennai have maximum temperatures of 31 degrees and 30 degrees, respectively, during the thirty days of January.
- The inflow of western disruptions originating from the Mediterranean Sea is a characteristic function associated with cool weather. Between January and February of each year, the disruptions occur every four to six months.
- Winter precipitation in the northwestern part of the subcontinent is caused by depressions connected with westerly disturbances moving off of the Mediterranean Sea. The current weather is unquestionably cool, but it is very beneficial to Rabi plants. In addition, snowfall from the western Himalayan glaciers disrupts the system.
- During the frigid winter months, the north-eastern portions of India receive plenty of rain. During these months, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, and Assam may receive up to 50 cm of rain.
The Hot Weather Season
- From mid-March to mid-June, the north Indian region receives well-defined weather that is hot. After the Vernal Equinox, the heat begins to rise, encouraged by the northward march of sunshine towards the Tropic of Cancer.
- Thermal home heating gradually establishes a thermal “low” at the surface across north-western India, but the jet flow remains south of the Himalayas, maintaining its dynamic anticyclone over Afghanistan and Pakistan’s borderland. This “lid” of sinking heating agent carries atmosphere higher and therefore causes precipitation.
- In April, a large region of the country between 10 degrees N and 26 degrees letter latitudes (excluding the west shore and the hilly states of north-east India) is covered by the 30 degrees C isotherm of normal temperatures. The diurnal temperature fluctuates between 5 and 6 degrees C in coastal areas, but reaches 15 to 20 degrees C in the interior of the country, as well as in the Satluj Ganga region in the north-west Plains.
- Being a transitional season between the north-east and south-west monsoons (rainy season), it is marked by an unstable atmosphere force and wind blood circulation. The lessened force area also shifts from south-east to north-west due to the sun’s northward movement. In the long stretch of May, it ultimately settles over northwestern India.
- Within the neighboring ocean, stress tends to rise as you move south. The usual route is from north-west to west in north-western India, and from south-west to west in the Arabian Sea and its adjacent shores. The dust storms of Punjab, Haryana, and western Uttar Pradesh, the hot winds (loo) of western India, and the Norwesters (Kalbaisakhis) of West Bengal are all summertime characteristics.
- The sun is searing, and relative humidity is normally below 30%, with infrequent drops to below 10% throughout the summer months. Rainfall in Rajasthan, Gujrat, and Madhya Pradesh is expected to be less than 2 cm; between 5 and 15 cm in the sub-montane region of Uttrakhand,
- Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Odisha; and between 15 and 25 cm along the Malabar coastline, with more than 50 cm in Assam, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland. Thunderstorm-caused rains in Karnataka are known as “Cherry Blossoms” (because they are very beneficial to coffee plantations) and “Mango Showers” elsewhere in south India.
The Season of General Rains
- By the end of June, a reduced force location develops over Punjab and Rajasthan. By mid-June, the south branch of this jet flow has weakened and has been evacuated from the southern Himalayan highlands, resulting in the formation of despair dynamic surface thermal decreased.
- By mid-June, the Inter-Tropical-Convergence Zone (ITCZ) has moved northwards to a position of 25 degrees N, allowing equatorial westerlies to flood the subcontinent. Rainfall in the United States is caused by cyclonic vortices within the ITC.
- The tropical easterly jet streams originating from Tibet’s thermal home heating intensify Indian Ocean stress, which is surely enormous, and from which the Antarctic Circumpolar Whirl presses south-east trade winds to emerge as the south-west monsoon.
- In June, the temperature reaches its peak, breaking the monsoon in India’s northern plains. The temperature has risen to 46 degrees Celsius in certain areas and is expected to rise further. The maximum temperature in June is 41 degrees Celsius in Jodhpur, 40 degrees Celsius in Delhi, 39 degrees Celsius in Allahabad, 33 degrees Celsius in Kolkata, 29 degrees Celsius in Kochi, and 23 degrees Celsius in Shimla and Srinagar. The diurnal variation is wide, ranging from roughly 30 degrees in Leh to 15 degrees in Delhi. This range is undoubtedly diurnal, but it is lower than that of May’s thirty days.
- On a hot day, rain usually begins in the middle of the day. This is referred to as a “monsoon explosion.” Improvements in the Arabian Sea can be seen on the Kerala coast as early as June 1st, and Mumbai by the end of the summer. It develops over Saurashtra, Kutch, and Madhya Pradesh around mid-June.
- The Bay of Bengal current hits the Andaman and Nicobar Islands first, then Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Tripura on the 1st of June. It quickly spreads across nearly all of Assam in June, reaching Kolkata around the 11th. In Delhi, western Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, and Punjab, the monsoon arrives around 1st July.
- The majority of the country is covered in clouds (from 1/8 to overcast sky) during the period of general rains. During seasons of general rains, the bigger regions of the Indian subcontinent get over 85 percent of total rainfall. Rainfall is caused by Arabian Sea currents along the Malabar coast, Konkan coast, west Ghats, Maharashtra, Gujrat, and parts of Madhya Pradesh. During this time, Mumbai receives about 190 cm of rain.
- As the Arabian current crosses the Western Ghats, the Sahyadris, which are located on the leeward side, receive significantly less rain. Pune, for example, is around 160 kilometers east of Mumbai and receives only 125 cm of rain.
- Due to the synchronous placement connected with the Aravallis, a sub-branch of the Arabian Sea that travels northwards through Kutch, Gujrat, and Rajasthan provides minimal rainfall to these regions. The Arabian Sea current runs straight up the western Himalayas, bringing significant rain to Uttrakhand and Himachal Pradesh.
- The Bay of Bengal current dashes being initially the Myanmar coast, and obstructed by the east hills, is deflected westward to the Ganga simple. This current causes the rain this is certainly heaviest at Mawsynram (about 1200 cm) and Cherrapunji (1100 cm) annually.
- A significant component of rain occurs each morning hours. Here additionally, the leeward sides associated with Meghalaya Plateau receive lower rainfall; 150 cm and 160 cm in Shillong and Guwahati, between and September correspondingly June. Going westward, the Bay of Bengal current offers Kolkata 120 cm, of rainfall between and September June.
- The weather and quantity of rainfall received are suffering from actual quantity of Cyclonic depressions which go into the nation through the Bay of Bengal together with the Arabian Sea. About 20 to 25 such depressions tend to be developed throughout the monsoon period, of which some are more powerful, causing harm that is immense life and home associated with the people surviving in the coastal areas of West Bengal, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Gujrat.
- The cyclone of 29 October 1999 by way of a velocity of over 300 km/hr killed thousands of people. A lot more than two million homes were washed away and about 12 million people were rendered homeless. These cyclones are accompanied by hefty rain, the actual quantity of which decreases going away from the areas being coastal.
- It could be seen that the coast is western Sahyadris, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, and Darjeeling mountains get more than 200 cm of rain.
- The remaining components of north-eastern India, West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Bihar, Chattisgarh, the Tarai area and mountains of Uttrakhand and Uttar Pradesh. receive rainfall between 100 to 200 cm. Likewise, the southern and western Uttar Pradesh northern and western Madhya Pradesh, east Maharashtra and Gujrat, and north Andhra Pradesh knowledge rainfall between 50 and 100 cm. Rajasthan, western Gujrat, south Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka plateau, Tamil Nadu, plains of Haryana, Punjab, and Jammu and Kashmir receive significantly less than 60 cm of rainfall. The lowest rainfall is recorded on the Thar desert in the country along the border of Pakistan, and the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir.
Season of Retreating Monsoon
With the southern motion of the sun, the south-west monsoon will depart from northern India by the third few days of September. By the end of September, the southwest monsoon had left the Punjab plains and surrounding areas. The retreat, in contrast to the initial eruption, is steady and gradual. By mid-October, the southerly arm of the jet stream has returned to its chilly temperatures south of the Himalayas.
The heat is uniformly high during the retreating monsoon season, with temperatures reaching over 25 degrees Celsius in Northern India around the start of October. The heat is often high, but evenings are comfortable, with the average temperature dropping to 20°C and even shorter days. The temperature begins to drop in November, and by December, the climate is definitely cool, with temperatures of around 15 degrees Celsius in the north and north-west sections of the Indian plains, about 20 degrees Celsius in the central parts of India, and about 25 degrees Celsius along the beaches.
With the advent of October, the reduced force region in the northwestern parts of India dissipates and moves on to its own destination, thanks to a low-pressure mobile in the northern sections of Bengal. It advances southwards at the beginning of December, and before the end of the month, it merges with the equatorial low. The winds are westerly in the northwestern parts of the country and along the Ganga, north-easterly in the Peninsular region, and north-westerly along the east coast.