Jainism and Buddhism

Emergence of Jainism and Buddhism In the sixth–fifth centuries BC, a number of religious groups formed in the mid-Gangetic plains, and we know of as many as sixty-two of them. Many of these cults were founded on regional rituals and customs practiced by various ethnic groups in northeast India. The two important of these sects, … Read more

Indus Valley Civilization UPSC

What are the main features of Indus Valley civilization? Geographical Scope Although the Indus or Harappan culture is older than the Chalcolithic cultures discussed above, it is significantly more sophisticated as a bronze-using culture. It arose in the Indian subcontinent’s northwestern corner. Harappan is the name given to a civilization that was first discovered in … Read more

Foreign Policy of India UPSC

Foreign Policy of India India’s foreign policy governs the country’s interactions with other countries in order to further its national objectives. Geography, history and tradition, social structure, political organization, international milieu, economic position, military strength, public opinion, and leadership are all factors that influence it.  Features of Indian Foreign Policy 1. World Peace PromotionThe goal … Read more

Central Information Commission

What is the role of Central Information Commission?   In 2005, the Central Government established the Central Information Commission. Under the requirements of the Right to Information Act (2005), it was established by an Official Gazette Notification. As a result, it is not a constitutional entity. The Central Information Commission is a powerful independent organization … Read more

Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities

Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities in India Initially, there was no provision in the Indian Constitution for a Special Officer for Linguistic Minorities. A recommendation was later made in this regard by the States Reorganisation Commission (1953–55). As a result, in Part XVII of the Constitution, the Seventh Constitutional Amendment Act of 1956 added a … Read more

Sarkaria Commission

Sarkaria Commission of India   The Central government appointed a three-member Commission on Centre-State Relations in 1983, with R.S. Sarkaria, a retired Supreme Court judge, as its head. The panel was given the task of examining and reviewing the functioning of current agreements between the Centre and states in all domains and making recommendations for … Read more

Punchhi Commission

 Punchhi Commission in India The Government of India established the Second Commission on Centre-State Relations in April 2007 under the chairmanship of Madan Mohan Punchhi, former Chief Justice of India. It was necessary to investigate issues of Centre-State relations in light of the significant changes that have occurred in India’s polity and economy since the … Read more

Federal System in India UPSC

Importance of Federal System On the basis of the nature of interactions between the central government and regional governments, political scientists have categorised governments as unitary or federal. A unitary government, by definition, is one in which the central government wields all powers and the regional governments, if any exist, get their authority from the … Read more

Parliamentary Committees UPSC

What is the role of a parliamentary committee? The Parliament is far too cumbersome a body to effectively debate the topics that come before it. The Parliament’s responsibilities are numerous, complex, and extensive. Furthermore, it lacks the time and expertise to conduct a thorough examination of all legislative proposals and other matters. As a result, … Read more

Judicial Activism in India UPSC

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Judicial Activism in India In the United States, the concept of judicial activism was born and evolved. Arthur Schlesinger Jr., an American historian and educator, created the word in 1947. The notion of judicial activism was first presented in India in the mid-1970s. The foundations of judicial activism in the country were laid by Justices … Read more