Importance of the Ganga River
- The Ganga basin is approximately 861,404 square kilometers in size (26.3 percent of total geographical area of country).
- It is given by Uttrakhand (110 kilometers), Uttar Pradesh (1450 kilometers), Bihar (445 kilometers), and West Bengal (445 kilometers) (520km).
- The Ganga River has a total length of 2525 kilometers.
- At an elevation of 7,010 meters, the Ganga emerges as Bhagirathi from the Gangotri glacier in Uttrakhand.
- At Devprayag, it is joined by the Alaknanda. The Alaknanda originates in the Satopnath glacier, which is located above Badrinath.
- The Pindar, Mandakini, and Dhauliganga rivers all flow into Alaknanda before uniting at Devprayag.
- Below Devprayag, the water that is united with Bhagirathi and Alaknanda is known as Ganga.
- After traversing 280 kilometers from its source, the Ganga arrives in Haridwar. It flows for roughly 770 kilometers south and east from here, joined by the Yamuna in Allahabad.
- The river then runs for 300 kilometers eastward to reach the Bihar plains. After crossing through the Rajmahal mountains, it changes to south-east and south.
- It divides into Bhagirathi-Hugli in western Bengal and Padma-Meghna in the Brahmaputra after passing past Farakka.
- Before entering the Bay of Bengal, the Ganga joins the Brahmaputra to form the world’s largest delta, the Sunderbans delta, which covers an area of 58,752 square kilometers.
- It is intersected with a complex network of tidal streams, mudflats, and small islands of salt-tolerant mangrove forest, demonstrating an exceptional example of ongoing ecological processes.
- Yamuna, Son, Tons, Karmanasa, Punpun, and Kiul are right bank tributaries.
- Ramganga, Gomti, Ghaghra, Gandak, Kosi, Mahananda are all left bank tributaries.
- The Ganga is India’s most important river, and it is unquestionably sacred. “From her source to the sea, from past times to new, Ganga is the narrative of India’s civilization,” says Pandit Nehru. In truth, this river is linked to fertility and spiritual nutrition of the people, in addition to its material purposes, which are essential to life and development.
- This important river, which is unquestionably sacred, is heavily polluted and dying. Pollution, over-extraction of water, starved tributaries, and climate change are all wreaking havoc on the great river that feeds one in every twelve people on the earth. The Ganga basin covers over a third of India’s land area and has its unique soil, which is unquestionably wealthy for many people.
- Nonetheless, the indiscriminate withdrawal of water from rivers and their basins by modern-day pipe wells, along with the damming of streams for irrigation, has significantly curtailed its circulation. Climate change has exacerbated the problem. Glaciers account for 30-40 percent of water entering the Ganga, rising to 70-80 percent in the full Indus condition.” To determine the impact of melting glaciers on mobility, research is required.
- Aside from people, Ganga’s degradation puts other sorts of life in danger. The river is home to over 140 seafood species, including 90 amphibian species and the endangered Ganga river Dolphin. Of course, the Ganga is revered to the Indian people. From a socio-cultural and ecological standpoint, maintaining this precious river is critical.
- The Indian government drew up a plan for the waterways from Varanasi to Kolkata. This is a serious plan to develop the Ganga as a major transportation and tourism river.
- The government decided to make the river stretch between Varanasi and Hugli navigable for boats while also beautifying the finance businesses by building eleven multifunctional terminals along the way, including one in Patna. The ministers of water resources, tourism, the environment, energy, and shipping will pool their resources to implement this bold strategy.
- According to the Central Pollution Board, the Ganga is one of the world’s most polluted rivers. The water in Haridwar District fails to meet almost all of the criteria for protection. According to official statistics, about one lakh pilgrims bathe at Haridwar’s over 20 Ghats on a daily basis. The biological oxygen demand (BOD) in the river water was already 6.4 mg per liter, rather than the 3 mg per liter that would be typical and suitable for bathing.
- Rivers are venerated in India, yet with rapid industrialization and urbanization, streams have increasingly become depository sites for industrial waste effluents. The Ganga Action Plan (GAP) has a budget of less than Rs 1800 crore. The ‘Namami Ganga Programme’ is an integrated initiative that was approved by the Union national in June 2014 with a budget of Rs.20,000 crores to achieve the dual goals of effective air pollution reduction and river Ganga conservation and restoration.
- Sewerage treatment infrastructure, riverfront development, river surface cleaning, biodiversity, afforestation, public awareness, industrial effluent monitoring, and Ganga gram are the primary points for the Namami Ganga Programme.
- On the 12th of August 2011, the ‘National Mission for Clean Ganga’ (NMCG) was founded. Because of it, the ability to approve projects worth up to Rs. 1000 crores has been granted. The director-general (DG) of the NMCG might be considered an assistant to the Indian government.
Tributaries of Ganga River
The Yamuna River
- The Yamuna is the Ganga’s longest and westernmost tributary, with a length of 1380 kilometers. Its resources are found in the Yamunotri Glacier, which is located in the western Banderpunch Mountains (6316m). Tons river, which flows behind the Mussoorie Range, joins it on the way down (Uttrakhand).
- It debouches onto the plains after passing through the Mussoorie range, moving in a broad circle. It runs southward before joining the Ganga in Allahabad, forming a border between Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. It goes through Delhi, Mathura, and Agra before joining the Ganga at Allahabad.
- The Yamuna’s major tributaries are the financial institution that’s right, which originate in the Aravallis (Rajasthan), Vindhyan Range, and Malwa Plateau in Madhya Pradesh. The right hand of the Yamuna River is represented by the Chambal, Sind, Betwa, Ken, and Tons. The river Yamuna is thought to have flowed south and southwest through Bikaner, Rajasthan, during the Vedic period, and shared its water with the popular River Saraswati.
The Chambal River
- The Chambal River, which has a length of 960 kilometers, begins near Mhow Cantt in the Malwa Plateau, south-west of Indore, from the Vindhyan range and runs north via a gorge to the populous town of Kota. I
- t turns north-east below Kota, going through Bundi, Sawai-Madhopur, and Dholpur until joining the Yamuna around 40 kilometers west of Etawah. The Banas River, which rises through the Aravallis Range, forms the left bank of Chambal. The Chambal River is well-known for its extensive ravines that it has carved all along within the Lower Chambal Basin.
- These ravines are caused by a slight uplift in current geological times, and they also merge into the Yamuna alluvial plain, where the landscape is thoroughly etched away by other tributaries of the Yamuna to the east and west of Chambal. Over the river, multipurpose projects are built. Gandhi Sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar, and Jawahar Sagar are the principal dams on the river.
The Ramganga River
- Within the Kumaun Himalayas, a river that is rather little rises. Before arriving at the Ganga simple in Najibabad, the river is redirected to the southwest by the Shivalik, which it passes through. Because of its Ganga, the river is linked in the Hardoi district, which is located opposite Kannauj.
The Sharda River
- This river originates in the Greater Himalayas in Kalapani (3600m), near the Lipu-lekh pass in Uttrakhand’s Pithoragarh district. Before it meets the lender that is almost Barabanki, the river is known as the Chauka. This river starts in the Greater Himalaya, near the Lipu-lekh pass in the Pithoragarh area of Uttrakhand, at Kalapani (3600).
- The river has the capacity to generate hydroelectric power. The concept of “The Pancheswar Dam” as a joint venture between India and Nepal was made in 1995, and it was built for irrigation and electricity generation. NHPC had commissioned the Tanakpur Hydroelectric Power Plant in the Champawat district in 1993.
The Gomti River
- It is a tributary of the Saryu River. This springs from the ‘Fulhar lake’ Madho Tanda, east of Pilibhit in Uttrakhand, in the upper highlands near Mainkot. Before reaching Kaithi, Ghazipur district, the river passes through Sitapur, Lucknow, Barabanki, Sultanpur, and Jaunpur districts. The Gomti valley is also known as the ‘katyur valley,’ and it is the largest farming zone in Kumaun.
- The summit of the hill is level, descending south and southeast. This is a stream that is always flowing. It has a drainage area of 30,437 sq km. Its main tributary is the Sai River. The river, however, is subjected to an air pollution attack from Sitapur to Sultanpur, as it passes past sugar-handling, plywood, and paper-making industries.
The Karnali River
- On the Nepal Himalayas, the Karnali is known as Kauriala, and in the Ganga plain, it is known as Ghagra. The Karnali is a river that originates from the Gurla Mandhata Peak (7720m) in Nepal’s Himalayas. The Karnali river flows through the Trans-Himalayan area for 160 kilometers before entering the Greater Himalayas and forming a gorge.
- This river flows through a narrow canyon. Within the plains, it joins the Sharda river and takes the name Ghagra, which means “rattling” or “lahnga.” It flows past the towns of Ayodhya and Faizabad before joining the Ganga at Chapra, near Ballia. Ghagra is a large river with unpredictable stream changes.
The Gandak River
- Between Dhaulagiri, Annapurna, and Mt. Everest, the Gandak river rises into the Nepal Himalayas, draining the central parts of Nepal. It reaches India’s truly gorgeous flatlands in the Champaran region of Bihar, then turns south-east to join the Ganga river near Sonpur, just south of Patna. This river’s training course similarly varies on a regular basis.
The Kosi River
- The Kosi is another river that has antecedents. It is known as the “Bihar Sorrow.” Its major stream, Arun, originates in Tibet’s northern Himalayas, near Mt. Everest (Asia). The Sun-Kosi enters it from the west after piercing the Greater Himalayas in Nepal, while the Tamur-Kosi joins it from the east.
- Both of these streams run for a considerable distance to the north of the Mahabharata Range, where they join River Arun to form the Sapt-kosi. The Mahabharata River flows through the Shiwalik Hills and into the Bihar Plains at Chatra in the Saharsa District.
- It separates into many erratic channels on the Bihar Plains. It is thought that the Kosi used to flow due to the general side of Purnea tow around 200 years ago, but that it is currently about 160 kilometers west of Purnea due to its westward migration. The Kosi River altered its training route by more than 100 kilometers to the east in July 2008.
- The devastating flood has been declared a disaster that will affect the entire country. Because of the Kosi River, which lies 30 kilometers west of Mannihari, the Ganga is joined. Nonetheless, it has been controlled since 1962 by the construction of embankments on both sides of the river.
The Tista River
- This is the westward suitable bank related with the Brahmputra. This is a wild hill stream that flows into the Darjeeling Hills from Kanchenjunga via a slew of tributaries like the Rangpo, Rangit, and Sevak. The town of Jalpaiguri, which was built on its bank, was completely wiped away in the 1968 flood.
- In Bangladesh, the Tista River enters the Brahmaputra River. Its route was dramatically altered by the flash flooding of 1787, soon before which it was utilised to form a confluence with the entire Ganga.
The Mahananda River
- The river rises in western Bengal’s Darjeeling Hills. It merges with the West Bengal duars (Bhabar) at Siliguri. It enters the Ganga river in a series of abrupt twists. This is the Ganga’s final tributary in the north.
The Ken River
- Ken, on his route to the Malwa Plateau, travels through Panna District (MP), where a gorge is created as a result of it at Ganga. In the Banda District of Uttar Pradesh, the Yamuna is joined by a river. The principal tributaries of Sonar and Bewar are Sonar and Bewar.
The Son River
- This is a big bank located south of the Ganga River, with a length of 780 kilometers and a basin size of 54,000 square kilometers. It comes from the Amarkantak plateau, which is not even near to the Narmada’s source. It keeps the plateau in a variety of waterfalls and meets the Kaimur Range, which changes its training track to the northeast and allows it to follow a hit region.
- It enters the Ganga below Garwa near Aara, west of Patna, at Bankipora. The river is frequently in spate, with an annual peak discharge of roughly 750,000 cusecs during the rainy season, compared to tiny water during the dry season.
The Damodar River
- The Damodar River drains the Chotanagpur Plateau’s east side. This river flows from west to east and emerges in the Bengal Deltaic flatlands, passing through the bottleneck of Asansol. Barakar is the largest of the Damodar River’s feeder rivers, and it joins the main river above Asansol. The river will make a right-angled bend below Bardhaman (burdwan) and meet the Hughli river in Falta in the north of Kolkata.
Smart Ganga City Scheme
On August 13, 2016, the Indian government launched the Smart Ganga City Scheme, which aims to build sewage treatment facilities in ten key locations along the Ganga in the first phase. Haridwar, Rishikesh, Mathura, Varanasi, Vrindawan, Kanpur, Allahabad, Lucknow, Patna, Sahibganj, and Barrackpore are just a few of the places you can visit. Under PPP architecture, this scheme uses Hybrid Annuity Mode. The program is entirely funded by the federal government, and district-level monitoring committees have been established to oversee its implementation Project.
Smart Ganga City Project
Gomukh-Hridwar (294km) :- Upper Ganga Region
Haridwar- Varanasi (1082km) :- Central Ganga Region
Varanasi- Kolkata (1134km) :- Lower Ganga Region
The Namami Ganga Project
The Namami Ganga Project is a conservation and integrated mission that was designated as a Flagship Program by the Union Government in June 2014, with a budget of Rs.20,000 crore. The twin aims that can be achieved are effective air pollution reduction and the preservation and revitalization of the Ganga. Sewerage therapy infrastructure, riverfront side development, river area cleanup, biodiversity, afforestation, community, awareness, and professional monitoring are the main pillars of the Namami Gange Programme. The nodal agency might be the Ministry of Water Resources, Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation. The National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) is in charge of putting this plan into action.
Committee of Madhav Chitale:
On the 22nd of July 2016, the Union Ministry of Water Resources, River Development, and Ganga Rejuvenation formed a four-member committee to organize tips for river Ganga desiltation. Madhav Chitle, an expert member of the Ganga River Basin Authority (NGRBA), has been nominated as the committee’s Chairman.
The creation of a sand registry to aid in the de-silting of the Ganga. The technical handling of the deposit budget is undoubtedly the establishment of the institute. Establishment of a flood-routing research institute. This is definitely solid advice, as is river bank anti-erosion work and reclamation of adjacent ponds across the river. De-silting of nearby lakes to increase their individual storage capabilities. Dredging shoals in the Farraka Barrage and regrading the Farraka Feedre Canal using the sediments.