Saraswati River in India
The river, which had originated from Kapal tirith in the Himalayas in the west of Kailash, was flowing southward to Mansarovar and then taking a turn towards west.
The river flowed through Haryana, Rajasthan and North Gujarat. It also flowed through Pakistan before meeting Western Sea through Rann of Kutch and was approximately 4,000 km in length.
- The river had two branches: western and eastern. The Himalayan-born Satluj “of the PAST”, which flowed through the channels of present-day Ghaggar-Patialiwali rivulets, represents the western branch of the ancient river.
- On the other hand, Markanda and Sarsuti represented the western branch of Saraswati, known as Tons-Yamuna.
- The confluence of the branches was near Shatrana, 25 km south of Patiala. And suddenly, it flows crossing the dessert (Rann of Kutch) and meet gulf of western sea.
The Saraswati is a significant Rig Vedic river that appears in the Rig Veda and other Vedic writings. The Rig Veda mentions it as part of the Sapta Sindhu rivers. Sindhu (Indus), Sutudri (Satluj), Vitasta (Jhelum), Vipasa (Beas), Askini (Chenab), and Parushni are the other rivers (Ravi).
The Saraswati is described in the classics as a strong and powerful river.
The Saraswati is said to flow between the Satluj in the west and the Yamuna in the east, and into the samudra, according to the Rig Veda.
The river dried up in a desert, according to later Vedic scriptures and the Mahabharata.
The Saraswati of Rigvedic times has been linked to the Ghaggar-Hakra river system in northwestern India and eastern Pakistan by many modern academics.
The Saraswati is said to have started in Uttarakhand’s Garhwal region’s Har-ki-Dun glacier.
The river was estimated to be 1500 kilometers long, 5 meters deep, and 3 to 15 kilometers wide.
Due to geological upheavals in the earth, the Saraswati flowed between 6000 and 4000 BCE, after which it dried up.
Ghaggar-Hakra River System
The Ghaggar-Hakra river system flows through northwestern India and Pakistan on a seasonal basis. It is a monsoon-fed river that only flows during the rainy season. Satellite pictures from ISRO and ONGC, on the other hand, have confirmed that a river formerly ran through the present-day Ghaggar River. The Ghaggar river rises in Himachal Pradesh’s Siwalik Hills (approximately 6300 feet above sea level) and runs through Punjab, Haryana, and Rajasthan. Before the Ottu barrage, the river was known as Ghaggar, and after the barrage, it was known as the Hakra.
Evidence of the Saraswati River
According to some academics, the Ghaggar river represents the Saraswati of Rig Vedic periods. The following are examples of evidence:
- Presence of coarse-grained white or grey sand: White mica strata 3-10 meters below the surface have been identified on both banks of the current Ghaggar along a 300-kilometer stretch up to the Pakistani border.
- Glacier-fed Himalayan rivers like the Ganga and Yamuna contain white mica. The ages of the mica samples in the sand of Ghaggar overlap with those of the rocks of the higher Himalayas, according to researchers using the Argon-Argon dating method.
- The Ghaggar river was perennial in two eras, according to some researchers: the first between 78,000 and 18,000 BCE, and the second between 7000 and 2500 BCE. The association of the Ghaggar-Hakra with the Saraswati river is supported by this study, which was published in Nature magazine.
- According to the experts, the end of the second perennial phase coincided with the start of the Harappan civilisation’s demise.
The Sutlej River was flowing into the Ghaggar River to make it perennial for the Early Harappans, according to research.
- In the Jaisalmer area, photographs taken by the American satellite Landsat revealed the presence of subsurface water in a distinct pattern. Scientists began to consider the idea of a vast palaeo-channel in Rajasthan that belonged to a great river at that time. The existence of palaeo-channels of a massive river was also discovered in seven to eight spots, all on the west side of the Aravalli hills, using remote sensing photographs from ISRO and the Geological Survey of India (GSI).
- According to numerous scholars, over 2,000 of the 2,600 Harappan sites unearthed are located along the Saraswati’s former palaeo-channels.